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"FEDERALIZM" #1 (81) 2016


Valentina MATVIENKO

The Congratulation of the Chairman of The Council of Federation of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation, Valentina Ivanovna Matvienko

MATVIENKO Valentina I., The Council of Federation of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation


Sergey VALENTEI

NOT JUBILEE REFLECTIONS IN CONNECTION WITH THE ANNIVERSARY

The main task of regional policy of any state is the «binding» of the economic space of the country, in modern Russia is solved inefficiently. Perhaps, the main reason here in that the experts and practical workers, forming this policy, think only with macro or microeconomic categories. As a result, this policy is focused mainly on the realization of branch interests. Such practice isn’t acceptable in cases when there is a need of spatial development of the economy, the possibilities of which are always limited by the permanent fight of interests between certain market participants for regional resources. The domestic regional research goes through difficult times. It’s certificated with the liquidation of the Ministry of regional development of Russia; the actual elimination of the Council for the study of productive forces (SOPS); the disappearance of «federalism» and «federal relations» concepts from the political lexicon, etc. However, the potential of regional studies isn’t limited only within Moscow. In the subjects of Federation still remain and successfully develop their own scientific centers. Their historical mission, perhaps, is more significant, than it seems at first glance. This conclusion is based on the analysis of the experience of the Institute of social and economic development of territories of the Russian Academy of sciences, which shows obvious progress in scientific potential formation not only of Vologda region, but also of the Russian Academy of sciences in general.

Keywords: federalism, federal relations, Institute of social and economic development of territories of the Russian Academy of sciences, region, regional policy

VALENTEI Sergey D., Editor in chief, Dr. Sc. (Econ.), Professor, Scientific Leader of the Plekhanov Russian University of Economics; e-mail: SValentey@yandex.ru

SOCIO-ECONOMIC PROBLEMS

Eugeniy BUKHVALD

Strategic planning – institutional framework for the transition of Russian economy to sustainable development

The adoption of the law on strategic planning should be considered as a logical and necessary step towards the formation of such a system of public administration, which would be able to bring Russian economy out of the protracted stagnation towards the trend of sustainable development. However, in order to achieve this important goal, the law’s propositions must be supported with a system of economic and institutional prerequisites. Among these prerequisites the article proves the decentralization of public management; long-term budget planning and forecasting; recovery of the system of sub-national (regional and local) finance; coordination of the activities of the main institutes and instruments of federal regional development policy. These prerequisites for effective implementation of the provisions of the federal law on strategic planning also concern its alignment with a number of other important legislative acts in the sphere of economic regulation, namely with the laws on industrial policy, on state-private partnership, on the development of small and medium-sized entrepreneurship, etc.

Keywords: budget planning and forecasting, Federal centre, regions-us, regional development, strategic planning

BUKHVALD Eugeniy M., Dr. Sc. (Econ.), Deputy Editor in chief, Professor, Head of the Centre of federal relations and regional development, Institute of Economics, RAS; e-mail:   buchvald@mail.ru


Irina KARAVAEVA

To the question of the return of the uniform social tax (the lessons of the past and the future prospects)

New realities of the budget policy dictate the necessity to change the landmarks in the implementation of the government anti-crisis program. The main factors of the economic situation in Russia in the face of the deteriorating of geopolitical crisis in late 2015 – early 2016 are sharp decline in the revenues of the federal and regional budgets and the aggravation of the social situation in the society. In these circumstances, the analysis of the situation with the possible return to the unified social tax in the Russian Federation in 2017 seems a very urgent task for evaluating the prospects of socio-economic development of the country as a whole and of Russian regions. The article discusses current position of the Government in relation to the need and the possibility of replacing the system of surplus payments to social funds with the unified social tax. The article analyzes development trends in Russian social system of taxation and social security over past decades.
The author compares historical and contemporary experience of social tax
and social security systems. The author proves the existence of a consistent trend of applying fiscal methods to ensure the implementation of social programs in times of severe financial constraints, comparable with the current period.

Keywords: contributions to the Social insurance fund, economic security, social security, social stability, social tax, unified social tax

KARAVAEVA Irina V., Dr. Sc. (Econ.), Professor, Chief scientific researcher, Institute of Economics, RAS; Head of the Chair of Economic Theory, Institute of Economics, RAS; professor of the Faculty of Economics of the M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University; e-mail: ikaravaeva@inecon.ru


Tatiana TIKHOMIROVA

Quantitative methods for assessing the state and losses of health of the population in the regions of Russia

A review of scientific works, dedicated to the assessment of population health status and its use for healthcare management may lead to the conclusion that many problems have been resolved, at least at the theoretical and methodological levels. However, in this sphere there are still a number of issues, which complicate obtaining the adequate picture of this phenomenon – both at the country level as well as at the level of separate regions. These issues hamper the opportunity to increase the efficiency of healthcare strategies, aimed at strengthening population health and life expectancy prolongation. The article contains the description of methods for adjusting age-specific rates and procedures for regional ranking and clusterization. The paper presents the results of rankings and groups of Russian regions with similar levels of age-standardized death and incidence rates for 1994–2013. As a result of this analysis the author revealed differences between regions with low and high health losses. This contradiction can be explained with the fact that people rarely seek hospital medical attention due to insufficient development of healthcare in these regions.

Keywords: average population age, death rate, incidence rate, integral death rate, integral incidence rate, life activity risks, Russian regions

TIKHOMIROVA Tatiana M., Dr. Sc. (Econ.), Associate Professor, Professor of the Chair of Mathematical Methods in Economics; Plekhanov Russian University of Economics;
e-mail: t_tikhomirova@mail.ru

LOCAL AUTONOMY

Vladimir LEKSIN

What is going on with the local self-government in Russia?

The author presents the results of the analysis of the current situation and the related problems with the local self-government in 2014–2015. The ongoing municipal reform principally manifests the trend of organizational changes.
It doesn’t ensure the solution of such vital problems as stimulation and support of various forms of citizens’ participation in local self-government, attaining parity in relations of local governments with the regional and federal governments,
reasonable and non-uniform distribution of powers between levels of government, reservation new sources of revenues for local budgets. The article contains a number of proposals addressing these issues.

Keywords: issues of local significance, local budgets, local government, local self-government, powers, self-organization of population

LEKSIN Vladimir N., Dr. Sc. (Econ.), professor, chief scientific researcher, Federal research center «Informatics and management», Russian academy of sciences;
e-mail: leksinvn@yandex.ru


Alexandr SHVETSOV

Reforms and counter-reforms of local government: marathon of century and a half length

Lasting for more than 25 years, the process of establishing and reformation of local government is characterized by continuous transformations, which take place according to the scheme «reform-counter-reform». The phenomenon of progressive-return fluctuations is not a specific nature only of the modern period. The author finds its roots in the era of the «semstvo» and the urban reforms in the XIXth century. Namely within this period stared and still continue in theory and in practice the rivalry between the socio-economic and state concepts of local government. Modern action of «reform-counter-reform» mechanism is illustrated basing on the example of transformations of local self-government territorial organization.

Keywords: counter-reform, local government, municipal units, reform

SHVETSOV Alexandr N., Dr. Sc. (Econ.), Professor, deputy director, Federal research center «Informatics and management», Russian academy of sciences; e-mail: san@isa.ru

FISCAL FEDERALISM

Valeriy GOREGLYAD

Lessons of the budget federalism: 20 years of reforms

The article discusses theoretical and applied aspects of the budgetary federalism formation in Russia during past two decades. The author comes to the conclusion that for the development of the budgetary federalism, which provides a real social impact of the budgetary policy, it’s necessary to redefine the understanding of independence of the subjects of the Russian Federation. The effectiveness of budget expenditures is derived from the actually realized public policy of the balanced regional development as the key principle of the budgetary federalism. The perspective of reforming the acting budgetary federalism model depends on the elaboration of financial instruments, ensuring the realization of the compromise of interests of the state and the society, which is based on the provision of conditions for the self-development of regions.

Keywords: balanced budgets, budgetary authorities, budgetary federalism, deficit of regional budgets, reform of interbudgetary relations, regional development, self-sufficiency of regions

GOREGLYAD Valeriy P., Dr. Sc. (Econ.), professor, Chief Auditor of the Bank of Russia;
e-mail: vpg@ach.gov.ru


Lyudmila LYKOVA

Tax policy and economic growth possibilities: regional aspect

Tax policy of the Russian Federation in the sphere of income taxation since the crisis year of 2009 was aimed at the reduction the tax burden on capital income in order to maintain the activity of economic entities. The tax burden reduction took place both in federal and regional component.
The procedure of the tax payment by consolidated groups of taxpayers leads to the redistribution of tax revenues between the budgets of the subjects of federation and sets their more pronounced dependence on world markets. The structure of the tax benefits within profit tax varies considerably for the different types of subjects of Federation. Only in five regions the regional component of tax policy dominates. For all other subjects of the Russian Federation federal tax benefits form the main volume of losses for regional budgets. The abolition of regional tax benefits will not solve the problem with forming budgets revenue of subjects of the Russian Federation, it is necessary to find other sources.

Keywords: consolidated groups of taxpayers, corporate income tax, depreciation reward, regional budgets, tax benefits, tax policy

LYKOVA Lyudmila N., Dr. Sc. (Econ.), Professor, Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation; chief scientific researcher, Institute of Economics, RAS; e-mail: lykoval@inecon.ru

RANGES OF SECURITY

Denis DOMASCHENKO

Ensuring the balance the interests of economic entities within the implementation of interest rate policy

The problem of high interest rates limits the opportunities for sustainable economic growth in Russia and in its subjects. However, its solution cannot be reached via one-time reduction of the level of key interest rate of the Bank of Russia to the indicators, typical for the main developed countries. The article examines the interest rate policy of modern Russia from the point of view of achieving the balance of interests îf financial and non-financial sectors of the economy. The paper offers the principles of the interest rates’ policy, aimed at achieving the appropriate balance via the convergence of the key interest rate level and weighted average return rate of the enterprises’ assets.

Keywords: banking system, inflation targeting, credits, bank rates policy, financial stability

DOMASCHENKO Denis V., Cand. Sc. (Econ.), Doctoral of the Department of Banking of the Plekhanov Russian University of Economics; e-mail: dendv@rambler.ru


Oleg SUKHAREV

Questions of Strategy for Russia’s Development

Strategic development of Russia should be reduced to a number of important principles: setting goals, determining the application area, functional completeness
of the required diversity and perception, resistance to changes, provision with the resources and others. Elements of the strategic management system can be represented via the following components: 1) the system of economic management (planning, organization, control, coordination, motivations at all levels); 2) socio-economic development strategy; 3) prognosis of economic development;
4) development programs; 5) instruments of influence on economic entities (measures of the current policy – a tactic). Thus, tactic determines the attainability of strategic development guidelines. If the macro impacts at the system level have great power, they are able to discount the movement towards strategic priorities. The paper presents model «2x2» – «investment-savings», «financial and non-financial» sector. It follows from the model that the reason for the difficulties of strategic nature consists in the overgrowth of the financial sector, in inefficient institutions, regulating and defining its mode of operation, which requires a change in the monetary and financial policies in the country. Strategic planning must end with the elaboration of development strategy and assume unified principles and approaches at various levels of regional and federal government. The perspective of this study forms the problem of the distribution of the monetary and fiscal policy effect (within the framework of fiscal federalism) in the regional context. The model proposed can become the initial scheme, in which the parameter of institutional bias of the financial sector
must be defined for different regions in order to identify methods to rectify this regional divergence.

Keywords: criterion of efficiency, macroeconomic policy, principles, strategy

SUKHAREV Oleg S., Dr. Sc. (Econ.), professor, Head of the Sector of Institutional Analysis of Economic Dynamics; Institute of Economics, RAS; e-mail: o_sukharev@list.ru


Vladimir PAVLENKO, Andrey PODOPLEKIN

Program Instruments of the Arctic States’ Policy in the sphere of Arctic Area Research

The paper considers political and administrative approaches, regulatory and financial instruments, applied by five sub-arctic NATO member states in the sphere of the scientific researches’ development of the Arctic. On the basis of program documents the paper shows the mechanisms of realization of geopolitical interests and priorities, reflected in the Arctic Strategies of Iceland, Denmark, Canada, Norway and USA in terms of their program documents, national programs and structures of research activity. The article reveals synergic effect of international cooperation of these countries, which makes it possible to integrate national experience, human, financial, technical and information resources in the scientific sphere. The author comes to the conclusion about the concentration of Russian scientific potential and its target financial provision, which is the necessary condition for the effective realization of the Development strategy of the Russian Arctic Zone and for strengthening of Russian Federation geopolitical positions in the macroregion.

Keywords: Arctic, Circumpolar states, policy and programs of scientific
researches

PAVLENKO Vladimir I., Dr. Sc. (Econ.), professor, chairman of Arkhangelsk Scientific Center of the Ural branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, vice-president of the International Arctic Science Committee; e-mail: chairman.arhsc@mail.ru
PODOPLEKIN Andrey O., Cand. Sc. (Hist.), senior researcher; Department for Integrated Arctic Research of Arkhangelsk Scientific Center of the Ural branch of the Russian Academy of sciences, member of working group on social and humanitarian sciences of the International Arctic Science Committee; e-mail: podoplekin@mail.ru

ANALITICAL NOTES

Galina GAGARINA, Alexandra POLYAKOVA, Lilia CHAINIKOVA

The Development of the Far East as a Geo-Strategic Goal of Russia

Current Far East Federal District (FEFD) contribution to the GDP of Russia is relatively small. However, Far Eastern macro-region has sufficient potential
for the sustainable development under the conditions of the constraining factors’ elimination. Available natural resources’ potential, favourable economic and geographic location determines the significance of these territories’ mastering.
Among the key challenges of socio-economic development of these territories are the following: inefficient structure of the fuel and energy balance, low rate and the actual lack of manufacturing industries, low density of the transport network and remoteness from the Centre of Russia, demographic problems. Prospects of region’s development depend on a number of preconditions, the major of which are the modernization of the transport and logistics system of the region and the success of its integration into the expanding economic space of the Asia-Pacific Region.

Keywords: competitive advantages, investments, socio-economic situation, specialization of the region, state program, transport infrastructure

GAGARINA Galina Yu., Dr. Sc. (Econ.), Professor, Head of the Chair of National and Regional Economics of the Plekhanov Russian University of Economics;
e-mail: galina_gagarina@mail.ru
POLYAKOVA Alexandra G., Dr. Sc. (Econ.), Professor of the Chair of National and Regional Economics of the Plekhanov Russian University of Economics; e-mail: agpolyakova@mail.ru
CHAINIKOVA Lilia N., Dr. Sc. (Econ.), Professor of the Chair of National and Regional Economics of the Plekhanov Russian University of Economics; e-mail: lilia.tambov@mail.ru


Tatiana DUBROVA

Trends and regional heterogeneity of small business development in Russia

International experience proves the importance of small entrepreneurship in the development of the competitive environment, in the implementation of innovations, in improving the quality of life, in the formation of the middle class, ensuring employment and maintaining social stability. In order to develop and implement effective programs of small business support and stimulating in Russia, it is necessary to get analytical information, taking in account branch and regional specificities of small business. The article presents the results of the analysis of current state and trends of small business development in Russia according to the size groups of enterprises. The paper contains the study of the structural changes in the branch and regional distribution of small enterprises. Using multivariate statistical methods, the author defined regional clusters with different levels of small entrepreneurship development.

Keywords: cluster analysis, multivariate classification, regional heterogeneity, small and medium-sized enterprises, small business, small entrepreneurship

DUBROVA Tatiana A., Dr. Sc. (Econ.), Professor, Head of the Department of Mathematical Statistics and Econometrics; Plekhanov Russian University of Economics;
e-mail: dokladt@mail.ru