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"FEDERALIZM" #3 (79) 2015

SPATIAL ECONOMY

Sergey VALENTEI

What for Russia needs Ministry of regional development?

The economic slowdown, exacerbated by falling oil prices and economic sanctions, ultimately actualizes the question of institutions, designed to ensure not only the modernization of the economy, but as well the control over these processes, including at the regional level. Limiting functions of such institutions with the solution of meaningful, but local projects threats with the deformation of the economic space of the country. The latter is possible partly including due to the obvious industry attachment of these institutions. This makes it necessary to return to the question of the advisability of the formation of the state body, responsible for the spatial block of the modernization strategy. In the case of its creation, the management of the economy at the federal level will become systemic, acquiring the form "markomanagement methomanagement branch management".

Keywords: Ministry of regional development, modernization, regions, sanctions, subjects of the Federation

VALENTEI Sergey D., Editor in chief, Dr. Sc. (Econ.), Professor, Scientific Leader of the Plekhanov Russian University of Economics; e-mail: SValentey@yandex.ru


Vladimir ILYIN

The unplanned result: the 25th anniversary of the Institute of socio-economic development of territories of the Russian Academy of Science

Excessive differentiation of Russias regions by the level of development, caused by climatic, socio-economic, cultural, historical and other factors, requires the elaboration of scientifically substantiated regional policy, which would satisfy the need to reorient the national economy towards innovations and to meet the requirements of the federal principles of state organization. The activity of regional research centres is especially important in this respect, since they are engaged with defining the priorities of territories development and work out mechanisms for the utilization of these territories capacities and reserves. These issues were not addressed adequate attention during the years of market transformations. For more than 25 years the authorities declared certain intentions but could not find comprehensive solutions to the problems of development of the science and technology potential of the country and its regions. As a result, took place an increase in development volatility for the majority of the subjects of the federation and municipalities; the competitiveness of their economies has reduced. The history of the Institute of socio-economic development of territories of RAS, established in defiance of the circumstances of the shock reforms period, shows that the systematic use of local opportunities can lead to the formation and the development of a full-fledged scientific institution and to the promotion of research potential of the region.

Keywords: training of research staff, priorities of the development of territories, regional research center, economic and social research

ILYIN Vladimir A., Dr. Sc. (Econ.), Professor, Director, Institute of Socio-Economic Development of Territories, RAS; e-mail: ilin@vscc.ac.ru


Evgeny POPOV

The influence of academic science on the Ural federal district development

Ural federal district is a traditionally industrial region with a strong scientific base in the form of establishments of the Federal agency of scientific organizations of Russia, accountable to the Ural branch of RAS. These establishments are located in the various cities of the district: in Ekaterinburg, Chelyabinsk, Miass, Kurgan, Tobolsk and Labytnangi. Despite considerable volume of literature on the impact of scientific advances on the development of the regions, while there not enough studies, related to the interaction of science, business and authorities in the Ural federal district. Analysis of such an interaction makes it possible to identify the main directions and trends of the influence of scientific institutions on the development of the region. The article defines the role of the institutional organization of academic science on the development of the Urals federal district. The results of basic research of the academic science in the Urals have been systematized.

Keywords: academic science, scientific organizations, training, federal district

POPOV Evgeny V., Dr. Sc. (Econ.), Professor of the Chair of International Trade and Foreign Trade of the Russian Federation, Russian Foreign Trade Academy; e-mail: Natalya_Rahmacheva@vavt.ru

NATIONAL INNOVATIONAL SYSTEMS

Konstantin LAYKAM

Statistics of innovations in Russia: history, challenges, perspectives

Modern economy is an innovation-driven economy since innovation is the tool for a permanent technological upgrade of enterprises and economy. Thus innovation can be considered as a main mean of competitive struggle in the 21st century. Russia has just started its way to the economy of the innovative type. In order to facilitate this process, statistics of innovations should provide the Government of the Russian Federation and the society reliable data on the investment potential of the national economy, including its regional level. The article describes the real state of the innovation-driven economy in Russia as well as challenges which be realized towards its perfection.

Keywords: innovations, regions, statistics of innovations, Rosstat, forms of federal statistical observation

LAYKAM Konstantin E., Doctor of Economics, Deputy Head of The Federal state statistical service (Rosstat), Head of the laboratory of Social and Demographic Statistics, Plekhanov Russian University of Economics; e-mail: k.laykam@mail.ru

SOCIO-ECONOMIC PROBLEMS

Tatiana TIKHOMIROVA

Estimating personnel needs of the regions of the Russian Federation in prognosis of the graduated specialists structure with professional training

The existing tension on regional labor markets in the Russian Federation to a great extent is generated with the imbalance of demand and supply of labor force, not only for its total quantity, but also in the graduates specialties and level of their training. The reason for this situation is the discrepancy between the structure of specialists graduation by the level of education and the needs of regional economies. Among the graduates of educational institutions dominate specialists with higher education and mainly humanities, while the industry of the regions suffers lack of qualified staff of working professions. The paper provides the analysis of trends in employment structure and graduates with different levels of training in the country in total and in the subjects of federations for the period from 1980 to 2013. The author proves rational - in terms of the balance of demand and supply of labor force - structures of graduates with primary, secondary and higher education in the regions taking into account the differentiation of sector structure of their economy.

Keywords: unemployment, grouping of regions of the Russian Federation, structure of graduated specialists, the structure of employment by the types of economic activity, levels of professional training

TIKHOMIROVA Tatiana M., Dr. Sc. (Econ.), Associate Professor, Professor of the Chair of Mathematical Methods in Economics; Plekhanov Russian University of Economics; e-mail: t_tikhomirova@mail.ru


Irina KARAVAEVA

Tax methods of small business promoting in the evaluation of the regions of Russia

The need of small and medium business development, state promoting of entrepreneurial activity are among the priority tasks of the Russian economy transformation. Government policy in the sphere of small business today is focused at increasing the number of economic units, creating new jobs and improving the investment climate via reducing financial and administrative burden over the entrepreneurs. Steady improvement of Russian entrepreneurship ratings during recent years can be considered as the confirmation of the effectiveness of such policies. At present one of the basic directions of small and medium-sized business promoting is the implementation of a package of measures, aimed to reduce fiscal pressure over this sector of the Russian economy. The article analyzes the results of the discussion concerning the project Basic directions of tax policy of the Russian Federation in 2016 and for the planning period of 2017 and 2018 at the session, held by the Committee on budget and financial markets of the Council of Federation of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation with the representatives of power bodies of the Russian regions in April 2015. The paper provides the evaluation of proposals by regional and municipal authorities to improve tax measures, encouraging the development of small business in addition to the proposals of the Committee of the Council of Federation.

Keywords: small business, private entrepreneurship, tax support of small businesses, subject of Federation, municipality

KARAVAEVA Irina V., Dr. Sc. (Econ.), Professor, Head of the Chair of Economic Theory, Institute of Economics, RAS; Chief scientific researcher, Institute of Economics, RAS; professor of the Faculty of Economics of the
M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University; e-mail: ikaravaeva@inecon.ru


Angelika GENDON

Development problems of the mining and chemical companies in Russia

Russia forms a significant part of the global fertilizer market, however a big part of the industry output is exported. In the conditions of presence of vast agricultural areas, this ratio is negative and creating a lack of this production at the domestic market. By the moment, in the Russian mining and chemical industry has been generated five vertically - integrated groups, ensuring the output of a larger share of mineral fertilizers in Russia. The article presents an overview of the Russian market and productions branches of mineral fertilizers and the characteristics of the three segments of the mining and chemical industry of Russia (nitrogen, phosphate, potash). The paper proves that an important way to increase competitiveness is an active developing of the internal market which would reduce the dependence of Russian companies on the world market conjuncture.

Keywords: nitrogen fertilizers, mining and chemical companies, competitive analysis, potash fertilizers, mineral fertilizers, improving the competitiveness, market of potash fertilizers

GENDON Angelika L., Cand. Sc. (Technic.), associate professor of the Plekhanov Russian University of Economics; e-mail: gendon1@yandex.ru

QUESTIONS OF LAW

Natalia OMELEKHINA

Legal model of spatial management of economy on the example of the Novosibirsk region

The necessity to raise competitiveness of the Russian Federation economy and to improve the quality of life of the population demands the elaboration of long-term economic strategies of the subjects of the Russian Federation. At the same time, it is impossible without adequate legal provision. The analysis shows that such legal provision requires adjustments and amendments to the terminological apparatus, practically used for evaluating of the effectiveness of budget spending, addressed to the solution of social and economic problems, including at the regional level. The article contains proposals towards the perfection of the legal grounds of the spatial management of the economy.

Keywords: agglomeration, state and municipal management, municipal formation, plan and prognosis document, reindustrialization, subject of the Russian Federation

OMELEKHINA Natalia V., Cand. Sc. (Law), Associate professor, Department of Law, Novosibirsk State University; e-mail: n.onv@yandex.ru


Vladimir EMELYANTSEV

State regulation of prices for socially important purposes in BRICS countries

State regulation of prices with socially important purposes is important to balance private and public interests. Of particular interest is the analysis of the civil law aspects of such regulation, relating to the observance of the principle of freedom of contract, as well as the experience of some BRICS countries in the sphere of state regulation of prices for food and other goods. The meaning of these countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa), where the role of the state in regulating the economy is traditionally high, has increased in recent years. At present, these countries in many aspects demonstrate the alternative to the Western European concept of the market economy development, including of its social sphere. In this connection, the way of addressing the problem of state regulation of prices in these countries is of great interest. The comparison of paternalistic paradigm manifestations in the regulation of such relationship, inherent to many BRICS countries with a Western concept, based on the market paradigm and the market economy principles, makes it possible to select the most effective legal constructions, ensuring stable and onward economic and social development.

Keywords: balance of private and public interests in the sphere of prices regulation, state regulation of prices in BRICS countries, civil law principle of freedom of contract

EMELYANTSEV Vladimir P., Cand. Sc. (Law), Deputy director, Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation; e-mail: 6430668@mail.ru


Ivan LEKSIN

Federalism and regionalism in the political and legal nature of modern Russia

The form of the Russian state without direct violation of the constitutional provisions may vary from semi-confederal to almost unitary. The paper proves that its necessary to avoid both idealizing the constitutional text and the preselected models of state structure. The optimality of the territorial structure is determined not by its compliance with canonical ideas about any form, but rather with its basing on the legitimate rules (regardless of their similarity to one form or another). The article contains critical analysis of contemporary territorial structure of the Russian Federation. Reasoning from the current legislative and political practice, the author suggests the identification of the present-day Russia as a regionalist state.

Keywords: constitution; regionalist state, subject of the Russian Federation, unitary state, federal structure; federation

LEKSIN Ivan V., Dr. Sc. (Law), Associate professor at the School (Faculty) of Public Administration M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University; e-mail: leksin@spa.msu.ru


Natalia GORSKAYA

Legal basis of the local administrative supervision in the Zemstvo act of 1864

The history of zemstvo institutions in Russia since 1864 gives rich positive experience of cooperation between local self-government and provincial administration, the main form of which was an administrative oversight. The Governor was entrusted with the difficult task of protecting state interests and ensuring the unity of action of local governance. The article, basing on the analysis of the Zemstvo Regulations of 1864 and legal acts, adopted in its development, discusses the main directions of the administrative supervision of the Governor and the procedure of the Governors protests. Legislation norms, aimed to regulate administrative oversight, were focused on the ensuring of the lawfulness and the independence of zemstvo against arbitrary actions of the Governor and ultimately contributed to the development of zemstvo life.

Keywords: administrative oversight, Great reforms, authority, governor, zemstvo, local self-government

GORSKAYA Natalia I., Dr. Sc. (Hist.), associate Professor, Professor of the Chair of history of Russia; Smolensk state University; e-mail: Gorskaya-n@yandex.ru

RANGES OF SECURITY

Olga VEREMEEVA

Institutional prerequisites for the management of international financial risks

Global shocks demanded the improvement of the international financial system. The interaction of states in the management of international financial risks is realized via universal institutions of the Bretton Woods system and the specialized agencies within the framework of G-20. The influence of elaborated international approaches over the development of the national system of crisis management, including in the Russian Federation, has resulted in the creation of the National Council for ensuring financial stability as well as in the implementation of international standards for economic regulation, financial reporting, standards of adequacy and liquidity of financial institutions, regulation of activities of the national rating agencies and some other measures. A new twist in the development of financial risks management system became apparent in connection with the installed against our country sanctions. Large-scale restructuring of the entire system of economic relations will require new measures to prevent global financial shocks.

Keywords: economic regulation, international financial institutions, anti-crisis policy

VEREMEEVA Olga V., Cand. Sc. (Law), leading scientific researcher; Research Institute of the Accounts Chamber of the Russian Federation; e-mail: veremeeva.olga@mail.ru


Denis DOMASCHENKO

Credit support of the real sector of economy via the stabilization of the deposit base of the banking system of Russia

The problem of insufficient credit activity of the Russian banking system in the real sector of the economy is considered in the article from the point of view of the potential instability of the resource base of the banking sector. Since its impossible to involve commercial banks in the implementation of long-term investment projects, the government has to build a parallel system of credit support through the programs of public-private partnership, implemented by SC Vnesheconombank. The author proposes the mechanisms of stabilization of the deposit base of the banking sector, aimed to enhance long-term investment projects of the commercial banks, and as well the mechanism of the neutralization of the problematic debt of strategic enterprises.

Keywords: banking system, public-private partnership, deposit base, credits, real sector, reservation f deposits

DOMASCHENKO Denis V., Cand. Sc. (Econ.), Doctoral of the Department of Banking of the Plekhanov Russian University of Economics; e-mail: dendv@rambler.ru

ANALITICAL NOTES

Lyudmila RZHANITSYNA

Stuffy demographic problems of the Far East

The Russian Far East by the set of socio-economic indicators still keeps its position among backward regions. The population is reducing; the economy lags more and more behind and suffers of the lack of qualified personnel. The living standards in the region are lower than in the central regions of Russia. All these tendencies are confirmed by the statistic data. According to sociological surveys, the people agree to live in the Far East only in case of the realization of significant and socially meaningful project for the development of the region, increasing wages, improving spheres of education and medicine. The government is taking steps to increase investment in the construction of transport and industrial facilities in order to enhance employment opportunities of the population, for the growth of production, better exploitation of natural resources of this region.

Keywords: demography, regional economy, social services, the territory of advanced development, standard of living

RZHANITSYNA Lyudmila S., Dr. Sc. (Econ.), Professor, Chief scientific researcher, Institute of
Economics, RAS; e-mail: 938@mail.ru


Anatoliy NESHITOY

Some results of a quarter-century of reforming the economy of Russia

The development of the Russian economy for the period of 1991-2015 according to the recipes and principles of the Washington consensus can be summarized as a backward movement. This model has resulted in the degradation of the national economy. In fact, fuel and energy complex remains the only source of economic growth and that turned Russia into a raw materials appendage for the economically developed countries. Official statements, recognizing the need to change the development model, still are not supported with any deeply argued programs. The exit of this economic deadlock requires another strategy. It should be based on planning and economic management mechanisms, aimed at the formation of innovation-oriented economy.

Keywords: Washington consensus, innovative model of development, liberal market approach, planning and economic mechanisms of regulation

NESHITOY Anatoliy S., Cand. Sc. (Econ.), leading scientific researcher, Institute of Economics, RAS; e-mail: a-nesh@yandex.ru


Lyudmila MAEVSKAYA

THE EVALUATION OF THE SOCIAL POTENTIAL OF THE REGIONS OF RUSSIA

The evaluation of the regions social potential of is the basis for the formation of the strategy of the federal regional social policy. On the basis of analysis of the social potential of the regions for the period of 2013-2014, the author comes to the conclusion that there is a continuing differentiation of regions in terms of the quality of life. This differentiation makes it possible to distinguish three groups of regions: prosperous regions; regions, the social potential of which does not exceed average indicators for the Russian Federation; regions with serious social problems. Existing territorial disparities in the quality of life dictate the need for a more flexible approach to decision-making in the sphere of social development of the subjects of the Federation.

Keywords: budget deficit, quality of life, ranking, regional social policy, social potential

MAEVSKAYA Lyudmila I., Cand. Sc. (Econ.), associate professor, leading scientific researcher, Centre of federal relations and regional development, Institute of Economics, RAS; e-mail: milma47@mail.ru

YOUNG SCIENTISTS

Svyatoslav SAVKIN

Interaction of political and business elites in the process of forming the investment attractiveness of the Republic of Mordovia

The article illustrates the issues of formation of favourable investment climate in the Republic of Mordovia in the context of interaction between senior officials of the region and the business community. The author analyzes the legislative initiatives in the field of improvement of the investment potential in the Republic of Mordovia and as well examines the dynamics of the effectiveness of the reforms, performed in the region, which demonstrates stable growth. Regional investment standard, including the best fifteen practices in the improvement of the investment attractiveness and competitiveness of the territory and such a system instrument as Regulatory Impact Assessment have become "growth drivers" for the Republic of Mordovia.

Keywords: investment attractiveness of the territory, investment climate, investment attractiveness of the subjects of the Russian Federation, regional investment standard

SAVKIN Svyatoslav P., Postgraduate student; Research institute of humanitarian sciences at the Government of the Republic of Mordovia; e-mail: svatoslav90@mail.ru

REVIEW

Yuri PISKULOV

The limitations of the doctrine of market fundamentalism

The article analyzes the main points of the book of the Corresponding member of RAS Ruslan I. Khasbulatov The decline of market fundamentalism. Theory, Politics, Conflicts; the book of the Academician of RAS Evgeniy M. Primakov Minefield of the politics; the book World without Russia? and the book of American researchers D. Kotze and F.Vir The way of Russia from Gorbachev to Putin. In the paper of Ruslan Khasbulatov the author proves that the continuation of neoliberal-monetarist economic policy led to declining rates of economic growth in Western countries and in Russia. At the same time, China, a number of other states of Asia, Latin America and South Africa developed for a long time more successfully, since they have chosen other methods of economic regulation. In the book of Evgeniy Primakov the author argues the necessity of reaching an agreement and compromise in international policy, taking into account the risks, including in large parts of the Great Middle East. In the book of David Kotz and Fred Veer has been developed the idea of Evgeniy Primakov about the importance of the transfer of acute contradictions between Russia and the USA into the plane of negotiations with the aim to find common interests in the sphere of military-political cooperation, as well as in other areas, including in the areas ofscience, culture and the development of democracy.

Keywords: neoliberalism, Keynesianism, neo-Keynesianism, economic policy, economic growth

PISKULOV Yuri V., Dr. Sc. (Econ.), Professor of the Chair of International Trade and Foreign Trade of the Russian Federation, Russian Foreign Trade Academy; e-mail: Natalya_Rahmacheva@vavt.ru