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"FEDERALIZM" #2 (78) 2015

RANGES OF SECURITY

Vladimir GLOTOV, Roman KOSTYANETSKIY

Network strategy as a generator of complex risks

In the article the authors analyze the implications of using the newest network strategies. These strategies are regarded as the generator of wide complex of risks, which exert direct impact on the entire system of national security. The study identified significant gaps and distortions within the system of national security as a result of the absence of such a core central element as the system of financial security. The authors note that the development of the shadow market has a devastating impact on all political and socio-economic relationships and directly influence the financial security of the national economy.

Keywords: financial security system, network strategies, risks of national security, shadow economy, transparency of the economy

GLOTOV Vladimir I., Cand. Sc. (Econ.), professor; Head of the Laboratory of financial monitoring;
The Institute of Socio-Political Research RAS; e-mail: professor.ispi.ran@gmail.com
KOSTYANETSKIY Roman P., Leading economist of the Laboratory of financial monitoring;
The Institute of Socio-Political Research RAS; e-mail: 7684458@mail.ru


Irina KARAVAEVA, Yulia ZEDINA

Public-private partnerships as a tool to ensure financial stability of the consumer market in Russia

New realities dictate the necessity of priorities’ changes in the state anti-inflationary policy. Introduction of sanctions on the import of consumer goods was of significant influence on the development of the modern inflationary situation in Russia in the crisis of the end 2014 – the beginning of 2015, as well as lobbying policy of large domestic corporations. The paper proposes a set of anti-inflation measures, aimed at harmonizing economic interests and the goals of state and business. Such measures should include the coordination of the interests of state and private business in the pricing policy. The paper shows how the state can influence the prices’ reduction by cutting the tax burden and encouraging the private credit business. The authors show some possibilities of reducing prices for products and services, which are produced in the framework of public-private partnership (PPP) agreements and on the basis of price agreements between the partners. The authors substantiate that the basis of the financial stability of a new Russian economy should be formed with the system of partnership between socially responsible state, socially responsible business and society.

Keywords: economic security, financial stability, inflation targeting, public-private partnership (PPP), state anti-inflationary policy

KARAVAEVA Irina V., Dr. Sc. (Econ.), Professor, Head of the Chair of Economic Theory, Institute of Economics, RAS; Chief scientific researcher, Institute of Economics, RAS; professor of the Faculty of Economics of the
M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University; e-mail: ikaravaeva@inecon.ru
ZEDINA Yulia A., Cand. Sc. (Law), Chairman of the Financial Holding Company; doctoral,
Institute of Economics, RAS; e-mail: yulia_zedina@bk.ru

NATIONAL INNOVATIONAL SYSTEMS

Alexandr TATARKIN

BEHAVIOR READINESS OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION TO NEW INDUSTRIALIZATION

New industrialization of the economy of Russia, its features and advantages require system changes in all linked branches and spheres of activity. New industrialization, based on new technological modes, is considered as the most actual trend of the modern stage of global and country economic development. The most important negative «costs» of neo-industrialization are stipulated with the unpreparedness of many participants to its full scale implementation, unbalanced technical, economic, social and infrastructure spheres, etc. The paper provides author’s assessment of the readiness of different levels of government to new industrialization of the Russian economy as well as the readiness of its participants (businesses and population) and suggests mechanisms and institutions of its implementation at various levels of the economy and management.

Keywords: models of industrialization, new industrialization (neo-industrialization), new industrialization as the actual trend of modern global and national development, technological mode

TATARKIN Alexandr I., Dr. Sc. (Econ.), Professor, Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Director of the Institute of Economics, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Yekaterinburg; e-mail: tatarkin_ai@mail.ru


Evgeniy KOREPANOV

New trends in the innovations’ area

The article provides the analysis of the fundamental changes in the sphere of technological innovations in Russia for the period from 2005 to 2013. Two stages in this process can be specified. At the first stage – from 2005 to 2010 – the innovations were concentrated in export-oriented industries. At the second stage – from 2010 to 2013 – total expenses on technological innovations grew twice, and their focus shifted to high technology industries and R&D sphere. As a result federal districts and a group of subjects of Federation with the highest research intensity in the national production have become the leaders in the innovation activity. Certain equalization was reached in spending on technological innovation and in payments on import of technologies between different groups of subjects of the Russian Federation with high, medium and low research intensity levels. The author proves that changes in the national innovation system show real possibilities of the transition to the intensive model of reproduction.

Keywords: imports of technologies, innovations, intensity, production, research intensity, regions, R&D

KOREPANOV Evgeniy N., Cand. Sc. (Econ.), leading researcher, Centre for innovative
economy and industrial policy, Institute of economics, RAS; e-mail: lborovikova@mail.ru


Dmitry ZAVYALOV

ASSESSMENT OF CLUSTER POLICY PERSPECTIVES IN THE REGIONS OF RUSSIAN FEDERATION

Creation of clusters and the development of the system of state support of entrepreneurship in agricultural-industrial complex require the selection of prospective territories with necessary resources for such type of cooperation, where it can prove its effectiveness. The analysis of economic theory and international experience in clusters’ creation showed the important role of the state support of agricultural-industrial business. Two models of the state policy of clusters’ creation can be specified. The first one is liberal policy, based on the market approach to the clusters’ creation. The state-driven approach is based on the leading role of state in clusters’ creation process. The most characteristic feature for the regions of Russian Federation is the combination of these two models. This combination provides both development of the local entrepreneurial activity and the achievement of the state’s strategic interests in the sphere of regions’ development.
The selection of territories, perspective for the creation of agro-industrial clusters, is based on the calculation of location quotients, labour resources and the analysis of changes in employment levels. Matrix methods are also used to assess the potential of cluster-development programs in the context of regions and spheres of economic activity. Using the data of the State Statistical Agency and analytical k-means algorithm of Deductor software, the regions with similar characteristics were revealed. As a parameter for grouping, the location quotients of agricultural sector and processing industry were used together with employment level and its dynamics. The Central Federal District (CFD) was used to demonstrate the method. Such an approach allowed highlighting groups of regions within the CFD, which have the most favourable conditions for cluster creation thus helping to decrease uncertainty in cluster development programs in the regions of Russian Federation.

Keywords: agricultural-industrial business, clusters, employment, gross regional product, localization, state policy

ZAVYALOV Dmitry V., Cand. Sc. (Econ.), associate professor of Chair of Entrepreneurship
and Logistics, Russian Plekhanov University of Economics; e-mail: zavyalov_d@inbox.ru


Irina DOMNINA

The potential of innovative development of regional economy

On the background of the reduction of Russia’s investment rating and the deterioration of the macroeconomic situation, the problems of implementation of the investment potential of the regional economy acquire particular importance. The possibilities of investing in regional assets and results of the investment intentions of the investors depend on many factors; they are expressed in terms of investment activity indicators of the Russian regions. Assessment of investment processes’ dynamics indicates the absence of sustained positive trend and the quantitative reduction of investment opportunities of the regions. In such circumstances, namely the quality and the innovative content of regional investments would strengthen the role of the sub-federal level of government in the implementation of the priorities of the Russian economy.

Keywords: elements of the regional innovation economy, forms of state support, investment activity of regions, investment potential, investment projects’ competitions

DOMNINA Irina N., Cand. Sc. (Econ.), associate professor, leading scientific researcher, Centre of federal relations and regional development, Institute of Economics, RAS; e-mail: indfin.61@mail.ru

QUESTIONS OF THEORY

Alexandra ODINTSOVA

LOCAL SELF-GOVERNMENT AS A DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTION

The development institutions are considered as the necessary prerequisite for the formation of the innovation-oriented economy. However, their list is usually limited with the set of organizations, the main task of which is to stimulate innovation processes and the development of infrastructure, using the mechanisms of the public-private partnership. The author opposes the priory classification of any organization as to development institution. On the basis of the analysis of the content of the notions «institution» and «development» the author offers a wider interpretation of the term «development institution». The author also substantiates the point of view, according to which, under certain conditions, the self-government institution also can be considered as a development institution.

Keywords: development institution, inter-municipal cooperation, local government, municipal-private partnership, self-government, strategic planning

ODINTSOVA Alexandra V., Dr. Sc. (Econ.), leading scientific researcher, Centre of federal
relations and regional development, Institute of Economics, RAS; e-mail: Aleksod@yandex.ru


Sergey SLABOV

Power relationships in terms of social exchange theory

Power relationships’ research is one of the most important component of the management science. Radical changes of the power relationships have taken place in the modern world. Due to the complication of social relationships’ structure, growing speed of environment changes, rising quality of labour force, complication of territorial organization of production the classic interpretation of power relationships both rational in their forms and asymmetric in their nature has been left in the past. Modern power relationships of various levels of hierarchic structure between managers and workers are symmetric, meaning mostly exchanges and negotiations as well as games of different types and are more play than guidance from ones and submission of others. The social exchange theory formed in 60-s last century has become the most adequate and productive in description and analysis of power relationships.

Keywords: organization, power performances, power relationships, power resources, social exchange

SLABOV Sergey S., Cand. Sc. (Sociol.), associate professor, Higher School of Modern Social Sciences of the Moscow State University; e-mail: ssslabov@yandex.ru

SOCIO-ECONOMIC PROBLEMS

Nataliya ZVEREVA

UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF POPULATION STUDIES OF D. VALENTEY

Problems of population, including their demographic aspect, are among the major socio-economic problems. The specificity of D. Valentey school is complex, interdisciplinary approach to the study of the population development (and its reproduction) in the unity of its two parts: one (meaningful), answering the questions: «why» and «what for» (that it is crucially important for the society), and another one (narrative), which gives the answer to the question «how» its development (and reproduction) takes place. These answers are aimed to provide a scientific basis for the decision making, for the optimization of financial flows within the unified system of regulating the population development (and reproduction) at the national, regional, and municipal levels.

Keywords: multidisciplinary approach, organization, population problems, the development population, the reproduction of population, the system of knowledge of population, theory of population (demographic theory)

ZVEREVA Nataliya V., Dr. Sc. (Econ.), professor, Chair of population, Faculty
of Economics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University; e-mail: zvereva 52@yandex.ru


Taissiya BARANENKOVA

THE DEMOGRAPHIC SITUATION IN RUSSIA: REGIONAL DIFFERENCES AND DEFORMATIONS

Russia meets long and steady process of depopulation. Its basis is formed with the declining birth rates and high mortality, especially for the male population of working age as well as for children and adolescent. All this resulted in aging population, reducing the labour potential of Russia and, accordingly, in labour resources’ shortages in the labour market. This situation has generated the necessity to attract labour resources from countries of near and far abroad, the quality of which do not always meet the needs of the innovative development of the economy of Russia. Against this background, the outflow of skilled workers, especially of young people, still continues and it reduces more and more scientific, creating and cultural potential of the Russian society. Basing on the analysis of statistical information for a long period of time, the article characterizes the demographic situation in the country as a whole and in the regional context. The author makes an attempt to identify the most disadvantaged regions with the criteria of natural and mechanical movement of the population, to explore the destructive consequences of demographic processes and to provide some recommendations for their reduction.

Keywords: depopulation, family, fertility, migration, mortality, resettlement of population

BARANENKOVA Taissiya A., Cand. Sc. (Econ.), senior researcher, Centre of employment policy,
social and labour relations, Institute of Economics, RAS; e-mail: agastya73@mail.ru


Victor CHEREPANOV

THE CAUCASIAN MINERAL WATERS: PROBLEMS AND SEEKING OF THE SOLUTION

On the territories, forming the complex of Caucasian Mineral Waters, historically originated and recently have sharpened some social contradictions in such areas as land utilization, town building, migration processes, economic activity, etc. These contradictions, being closely interconnected, represent the manifestations of the general contradiction between the goal of the Caucasian Mineral Waters’ mission and real social relations among different subjects. This situation requires the adoption of nationwide state measures. In this view, the author proposes to set in the given region some special legal regimes via signing several treaties between Russian Federation and the subjects of federation, where the Caucasian Mineral Waters are located.

Keywords: Caucasian Mineral Waters as especially protected ecological-resort resort region, federal resort, limitation of migration, special legal regime, treaties between Russian Federation and its subjects

CHEREPANOV Victor A., Dr. Sc. (Law), Honoured Lawyer of the Russian Federation, professor
of the Chair of law, Stavropol Agrarian State University; e-mail: sigma45@yandex.ru

FISCAL FEDERALISM

Anton GALUKHIN

FINANCIAL STABILITY OF THE REVENUE BASE OF REGIONS’ BUDGETS: STATE AND ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF ITS MANAGEMENT

Financial stability of the revenue base of the region’s budget can be defined as the ability of the budget to ensure the realization of the entire range of expenditure responsibilities of public authorities’ bodies. The analysis of the current state of territorial public finance made it possible to reveal the key problems of the stable filling the treasury of North-West Federal District (NWFD) regions: the preservation of large degree dependence of the formation of the revenue side of regional budgets from the federal centre; the growth of the deficit of the own revenue resources for the proper implementation by the territories of the expenditure obligations, assigned to the regions; multiple growth of returning to the federal budget of unspent targeted transfers as a result of the late submission of financial assistance to regions, increasing risks of insolvency of territories.
As an effective tool for the evaluation of the governing the financial stability of the revenue base of the territorial budgets may be used the model of «managing for results». Testing of the proposed method on materials of NWFD regions revealed the reduction of the effectiveness of management of financial stability of the revenue base of regional budgets as a result of preservation of considerable financial dependence on the federal government, exacerbating the problems of intergovernmental budget interaction, growing severity of the regions’ debt crisis.
The investigation made it possible to determine the main directions of improving the effectiveness of management of financial stability of the revenue base of regional budgets: increasing the regions’ financial autonomy, the modernization of intergovernmental budget interaction, the perfection of the debts’ policy and the development of the revenue potential of the territories.

Keywords: effectiveness of management, methodological tools, public finance, revenue base of budgets

GALUKHIN Anton V., Junior Researcher, Institute of Socio-Economic Development of
Territories, RAS; e-mail: antongalukhin@yandex.ru

FOREIGN EXPERIENCE

Lyudmila LYKOVA

TAXATION SYSTEM OF THE UNITED KINGDOM IN THE TERMS OF FINANCIAL CRISIS

Historically, the taxation system of the United Kingdom is based primarily on direct taxes. The role of indirect taxes is also quite substantial in comparison with the social security payments. Significant changes in the individual income tax, corporate income tax, and value added tax were inserted during and after the financial crisis of 2008-2009. A new tax on the banks’ bonus payments has been introduced during the crisis. Anti-crisis changes concerned tax rates, the procedure of calculation of the tax base, tax deductions and credits. These changes were designed to support economic activity during the crisis and the growth of budget revenues in the period of recession. Local taxes, the role of which in the formation of the consolidated budget of the country is negligible, did not undergo any significant changes during and after the crisis.

Keywords: bank bonus payments tax, budget, financial crisis, local taxes, personal income tax, taxation system, taxes, the United Kingdom

LYKOVA Lyudmila N., Dr. Sc. (Econ.), Professor, Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation; chief scientific researcher, Institute of Economics,
RAS; e-mail: lykoval@inecon.ru


Irina BUKINA

TAX SYSTEM AND FISCAL FEDERALISM IN GERMANY

The tax system in Germany is characterized with the high tax burden. The dominating part of the consolidated budget revenues is formed by the so-called joint taxes – taxes, the proceeds of which are distributed over the levels of the budget system. Joint taxes play a special role in the system of fiscal federalism in Germany, ensuring not only vertical, but also horizontal alignment. In order to mitigate the consequences of the crisis of 2007, joint taxes have undergone some modifications: changes have been made in terms of personal income taxation, in corporate income tax and VAT. The paper provides statistical analysis of the variations in the tax revenue at all levels of the budget system before and after the distribution of joint taxes. This analysis showed that the system of tax federalism in Germany makes possible to secure relative stability of tax revenues at the local level, shifting risks in the time of crisis over the federal budget and regional budgets.

Keywords: anti-crisis measures, fiscal federalism, fiscal policy, Germany, taxation

BUKINA Irina S., Cand. Sc. (Econ.), senior researcher, Institute of Economics, RAS; e-mail: bis.email@gmail.ru