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"FEDERALIZM" #4 (76) 2014



Programs as a future of the Russian budget

By the moment, number of states has already obtained the experience of the programme budget, and in Russia there is also a shift towards budgeting in programme format. This enables as well the transition to programme principle of activities organization of public authorities. In the future state programs must become an important element of the management system and method of increasing the efficiency of budget expenditures. The article reveals investigates identified flaws in the design and in the implementation of government programmes and in the programme budget as a whole. As the results the author suggests a number of measures aimed at optimizing the process of transition to a programme budget, including measures aimed at improving the methodological approaches to the formation of the state programs of the Russian Federation; measures of optimization of budget mechanisms and achieving more complete integration of the processes of formation of the budget and state programs of the Russian Federation. Their implementation will make it possible to create the conditions for improving the quality of budget planning, flexibility and efficiency of budgetary funds utilization.

Keywords: program budget; state programs of the Russian Federation; program principle of organization of activity of bodies of state power; program management tools; measures to optimize the transition to program budget

BUSHMIN Evgeniy V., Cand. Sc. (Econ.), Deputy Chairman of the Council of Federation of the Russian Federation e-mail:


Strategic planning in Russia: historical experience and economic realities

Adoption of the federal law on the strategic plan generates the necessity of the broad set of the theoretical and methodological developments, allowing fully and with high efficiency realize methods of strategic planning in the country. As one of the directions such researching should become the generalization of the Soviet period experience of the long-term planning starting GOELRO plan and the first five-years plans till the attempts to elaborate and realize complex long-term programs of scientific and technical progress in the USSR. The article illustrates common features and tasks and as well essential differences, characterizing the practice of strategic planning in the soviet conditions and in the conditions of present Russia. The paper proves that the adopted variant of the federal law on strategic planning requires essential corrections and additions, including the experience, which has been accumulated earlier in the development of the given method of the government management.

Keywords: strategic planning, industrialization, goal-setting, economic validity of plans, modernization of economy

BUKHVALD Eugeny M., Dr. Sc. (Econ.), Professor, Head of the Centre of federal relations and regional development; Institute of Economics, RAS e-mail:
POGREBINSKAYA Vera A., Dr. Sc. (Econ.), Professor of the Chair of national economy and economic studies history of the Economic Faculty of the Moscow State M.V. Lomonosov University e-mail:



Simulation of demographic processes using the agent-based approach

This paper describes the design of the agent-based model of Russia, simulating the basic demographic processes - mortality, fertility and migration. The paper proves that the change of residence as well as the birth of children are the result of the choice of independent agents, caused by external economic conditions and internal settings which are different for urban and rural residents. The structure of the Russias population as a whole and its regions is formed by the aggregation of the actions of individual agents.

Keywords: agent-based model, demographic processes, social modeling

MAKAROV Valery L., Academician of RAS, Director, Central Economics and Mathematics Institute, RAS e-mail:
BAKHTIZIN Albert R., Dr. Sc. (Econ.), Head of The Laboratory, Central Economics and Mathematics Institute, RAS e-mail:
SUSHKO Elena D., Cand. Sc. (Econ.), Leading Researcher, Central Economics and Mathematics Institute, RAS e-mail:


Protofederalism as the first stage of creating a federal state

The article explains the concept and content of protofederalism as the initial and necessary stage in the process of creating a state with the federal form of territorial structure. The paper shows that at the given period grow the prerequisites for the establishment of federalism; testing of a number of institutions of federal statehood is carried out within a confederation, a union of colonies under metropolis power, autonomies within the empire and as well of self-governing colonies. The result of this stage is the recognition by the specific political and territorial community of the values of federalism with its democratic mechanism of the division of powers, or abandoning these values. Article is based on the research of historical and legal experience of forming more than fifty federations in the world.

Keywords: history of federalism, protofederalism, theory of the state, federalization, federalism

IVSHINA Irina N., Cand. Sc. (Law), assistant professor of the Chair of general theoretical law disciplines, The Northwestern branch of The Russian Academy of Justice (Saint-Petersburg) e-mail:


The role of intellectuals in the national process: approaches and interpretations

The questions of the nature of intellectuals as a social phenomenon are being discussed for several decades, as well as the problem of their functions, relations with the authorities and their responsibility to the society. The constructive paradigm in nationalism-related studies made the problem of intellectuals one of the key. None of the major theorists could ignore it. Many factors affect on the vision of the place and role of intellectuals in the national process. Among them such factors as the area of interest of the researcher, his scientific profile, methodological features of the approach, the understanding of the phenomenon of intellectuals and concrete empirical material. Four interdisciplinary research platforms could be segregated within this problem. First, the intellectuals are the inventors of the nation concept. Second, the intellectuals are the authors of the national political projects. Third, colonial national intellectuals. Fourth, intellectuals as a social group, which provides daily reproduction of the national idea.

Keywords: Intellectuals, nationalism, intelligentsia, nation

MIKHAILOV Dmitriy A., Cand. Sc. (Econ.), Assistant professor, Siberian branch of the Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration e-mail:


Anatoliy SHISKIN

The marketing concept of spatial Economics

The common understanding of the space in this article is specified to applied fields and spheres of activity. The emphasis in the study is made on the economic space with the historical excursion. The concept of spatial economics is critically correlated with such established terms as region, territory. In this article the author makes an attempt to apply to marketing understanding of space and also to formulate the specifics of marketing space. The study leads to a fundamentally important thesis about perspective development goals of a modern economy, based on marketing principles. Marketing as a methodology of market activity has received honoured understanding as well in the sphere of regional (spatial) economy. The paper underlines worldwide trend of regions' development in the form of permanent increase in the quality of life. The paper provides the analysis of the factors, which could serve as marketing development indicators of the region development.

Keywords: space and spatial economics, territory, region, regional marketing, marketing indicators of the regions development

SHISKIN Anatoliy V., Dr. Sc. (Econ.), professor of the Chair of Marketing of the Plekhanov Russian University of Economics e-mail:


The public-private partnership in the sphere of production and sales of public goods

The model of the state with the developed system of social protection implies increasing financial pressure on the productive sector and the affluent segments of the population and this pressure has its natural limits. The given situation requires the formation of new institutions and the creation of instruments, which make it possible to involve additional investors, obtaining significant financial resources. The public-private partnership (PPP) is one of such new institutions. The formation of effectively and legitimately controlled financial mechanism for the PPP sector acquires fundamental significance. In modern domestic practice this idea is realized via the mechanisms of efficient production and utilization of public goods on the basis of complex financing. As an investment sources for such funding serve financial resources at the disposal of the bodies of public power (government agencies and bodies of local self-government) and private investments.

Keywords: public goods, public interests, socialization of the economy, the cooperation of state and private business, cooperation of local self-government authorities and private business, public-private partnership (PPP)

ZEDINA Yulia A., Cand. Sc. (Law), Chairman of the Financial Holding Company e-mail:



Problems of armed conflicts in the Northern Caucasus in the conditions of revolutionary crisis of 1917- early 1920s.

The article presents the analysis of the problems of armed conflicts in the Northern Caucasus during the revolution of 1917, Civil war and in the conditions of transition to a new economic policy. The research has shown that the formation of the soviet power in the region was entailed by massive anti-soviet activity of the local population. The political protest in the region is considered as a complicated, contradictory unity of diverse movements, caused with the complex of entopolitical, economic, cultural and historic factors. The soviet power defended its positions using not only thoroughly thought-out policy of proclamation of mountain settlements' autonomy, but also with the strong military suppression of the centers of resistance.

Keywords: armed conflicts, civil war, rebel, revolution, the Northern Caucasus, soviet power

YABLOCHKINA Irina V., Dr. Sc. (Hist.), professor, Director of the Centre of Humanitarian Training, Plekhanov Russian University of Economics e-mail:

Magomed-rasul IBRAGIMOV, Valery EGOROV

Conflicts generating aspects in the land issue in Dagestan

The article considers land issues conflicts in Dagestan - the largest, the most multi-ethnic and multi-confessional republic of the North Caucasus. The paper analyses the dynamics of contentious issues in the sphere of land-tenure since its cusp in the 20-s of the last century till the present day. The article shows the scale and the geography of migration processes, the consequence of which became the rise of ethnic, cultural, historical and other contradictions and conflicts, whose roots literally moves into the ground. The paper reveals objective and subjective factors of migration activity of a large part of the population of mountainous and highland areas, its relocation to the plain, which led to significant changes in the ethnic map of the plain and foothill part of Dagestan. The authors offer possible ways to soft the problem and formulate the position that political transformations in Dagestan are needed for the adequate solution of land issues in the republic.

Keywords: habitat, land issue, land-tenure, conflicts, migration, parliament, Republic of Dagestan, the ethnic map

IBRAGIMOV Magomed-rasul A., Cand. Sc. (Hist.), Leading researcher of the Department of Ethnography, Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Dagestan Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Associate Professor of Dagestan State University e-mail:
EGOROV Valery K., Cand. Sc. (Hist.), Scientific Secretary of the Center for Security Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences e-mail:


War prisoners in Siberian capital constructions (1943-1950)

The article describes the network of camps for war prisoners and internees, existed in Siberia in 1943-1950s. The paper determines the number of these camps; shows the application sphere of bonded labour in capital construction works in the context of separate sectors of the economy. The author considers relation between war prisoners and Soviet citizens and business managers in production activities. The paper contains the research of the organization, conditions and efficiency of using the labour of former enemy military men and economic results of camps functioning. The paper analyzes the methods of stimulating of labour activity and shows the achievements of the best workers.

Keywords: foreign war prisoners, capital construction, Siberia, labour organization and productivity, forced labour

DOLGOLIUK Alexey A., Cand. Sc. (Hist.), seniour researcher, Institute of History, Siberian Branch, RAS e-mail:
MARKDORF Natalia M., Dr. Sc. (Hist.), professor of the Novosibirsk state pedagogical university e-mail:



The federal and regional aspects of the legislative policy in realization of the citizens constitutional right to social security in the Russian Federation

According to the Constitution of the Russian Federation, the federal structure of the state includes the separation of competences and powers between the bodies of state power of the Federation and its subjects. The article provides and proves the idea that the constitutional right for the social security should be a concern both of the federal centre government and of the subjects of the Federation, depending on the regulated matter and taking into account the basic role of the Federation and the assisting and detailing role of the subjects of the Federation. Basing on the given research, the author comes to the conclusion about the necessity to increase the role of the subjects of Federation in the realization of the citizens constitutional right for social security, with the necessary detailing of citizens rights depending of the financial capacity of regions, but at the same time within the unification of the federal legislative policy in the social security area as the necessary precondition for keeping unified legislative space within the country and ensuring the principles of the welfare state.

Keywords: The Constitution, competence, monetization, social security, legal culture, legal policy

BAIMATOV Pavel N., Post-graduate student of the Chair of constitutional and municipal law, Institute of State and Law of The Tyumen State University e-mail:


Timber processing complex of Vologda Region as resource of steady development of the region

By the moment good preconditions for accelerated development of timber processing complex have been created in Russia. Vologda timber processing complex takes special position in the forest branch due to its rich forest resources, proximity to foreign and domestic markets of forestry production. Structure of the regional timber processing complex is changing towards deeper wood processing and maximum value-added production. Finance activity characteristics of timber processing factories indicate lower growth rate of its profitability. The development of Vologda region timber processing complex is restrained with such factors as low density of forestry roads, absence of enough quantity of modern production facilities and qualified personnel. The Strategy of Vologda timber processing complex development till 2020, approved by the Government of the subject of Federation, indicates basic directions of enterprises and bodies of rower activity, aimed to ensure competitiveness of the region in timber industry. The Strategy forms three corridors: Northern, Western and Eastern, within which the document concretizes the tasks for timber enterprises development. After four years of Strategy realization its possible to make a conclusion that its basic propositions are implemented.

Keywords: timber processing complex, timber processing

DOLZHENKO Denis E., Postgraduate student, Vologda Business Institute e-mail:


The types and models of financing culture

A retrospective analysis of the culture development shows that in different historical epochs the role of state in its financial support has been changing. It makes possible to come to the conclusion about the existence of different types of state policy in the sphere of culture. Conventionally, the entire set of past and present types of financing can be grouped into three models of culture financing. In the modern period, within the transition to a multi-channel cultures financing, states should take into consideration some restrictions, among which should be mentioned the level of economic welfare of the country and investors preferences in realization the financial support of culture.

Keywords: state policy in the sphere of culture, historical types of financial support to culture, models of culture financing, financial support to culture

ISHUTKINA Kristina A., Postgraduate student of the Chair of finance and credit, N.P.Ogarev Mordovia State University e-mail:


On the question of the relationship between the duties of the state to recognize and protect rights and freedoms of a man and a citizen in the constitutional law of the Russian Federation

The subject of study in this article is presented with the constitutional duties of the state to recognize and protect rights and freedoms of a man and a citizen in the Russian Federation. The author provides constitutional and legal description of each of these obligations and identifies the relationship between them. The paper species the types of the recognition by the state of human rights and freedoms of a man and a citizen: direct and indirect. Within the research the author has used the methods of comparative law, scientific analysis and synthesis. The author, using the above mentioned methods, came to the conclusion about the relationship between the constitutional duties to recognize and protect the rights and freedoms of a man and a citizen. The recognition of the right is of the primary responsibility in the relation to its defense. Without the recognition of the state of law, its further implementation, including its defense is not possible.

Keywords: state, protection, constitution, duty, rights, recognition, freedoms, compliance, man

KARASEV Roman E., Postgraduate student; Institute of State and Law of The Tyumen State University e-mail:


The stat of legislative framework of interstate cooperation at the financial markets of the CIS

In modern conditions we can see a gradual process of harmonization and unification of the legislative framework, regulating the financial markets of the CIS and EurAsEC. The signing of the Treaty on the Eurasian Economic Union has brought the integration of the legislation of the EurAsEC member- states, including the sphere of finance, to a new level. The article concludes that the final conversion of the financial legislation of all member countries to a common standard as a prerequisite for the formation of the unified financial market is a long process. This process is expected to be completed by 2025. By this moment it would be necessary to form a unified regulator for financial markets of the member-states, which includes the principle of a single license for the participant of the financial markets for financial institutions of the member-states of the EAEC and the free flow of financial services between countries.

Keywords: harmonization of legislation, EAEC, EurAsEC, legislative framework, CIS, financial integration, financial sphere, financial markets

KULI-ZADE Togrul A., Postgraduate student, Chair of Finance and Prices, Plekhanov Russian University of Economics e-mail:


The formation and the development of electronic voting in foreign countries

The article analyses the experience of electronic voting development in the Netherlands, Germany and Switzerland and investigates the actions, directed to the protection of the means of this kind of voting, to ensuring the transparency and increasing the electors attendance. The research has shown that the implementation of electronic voting brings in a wide range of advantages: the speed of votes calculating, increasing the electors attendance, greater trust of the electors to the modern system of voting, etc. As the result of the given study the author comes to the conclusion about the necessity of summarizing the international experience of electronic voting development, about the importance of studying the problems, which inevitably occur within the process of its application.

Keywords: elections, Internet, Germany, the Netherlands, Switzerland, electronic voting

MATRYONINA Kseniya Y., Postgraduate student, Institute of State and Law, Tyumen State University e-mail: