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"FEDERALIZM" #3 (75) 2014



Is it possible to identify the state control with state audit?

The existing legal framework for the regulation of the state financial control in Russia has no clear theoretical interpretations of the essence of the basic notions and actually identifies the concepts of financial control and audit. As a result have been developed controversial methods of the practical realization of these forms of control. The authors’ position is that the main targets of financial control cover the task to verify the legality of the functioning of financial resources and the effectiveness of their spending. To assess the degree of security of property is forming independent institution of audit, which may provide such service to the owner. Its goal is realized via minimizing the risks, originating in the conflict of interests of participants of operation of the objects of property. This is essentially different elements of the system of public financial interests’ protection.

Keywords: public audit, neoinstitutionalism, property, safety, financial control, effectiveness

GOREGLYAD Valeriy P., Dr. Sc. (Econ.), professor, Chief Auditor of the Bank of Russia; e-mail:
PODPORINA Irina V., Dr. Sc. (Econ.), professor, Russian Academy of National Economy and Public Administration under the President of the Russian Federation; e-mail:


Structural analysis of industrial system development

The assessment of structural changes in the manufacturing and mining industries as well as in the sector of manufacturing of machines makes it possible to obtain the patterns of structural changes in the industry, to identify the relationship of labour productivity in the industry and the growth of the economic system, to estimate the change in the «structural independence» of the industrial system. The ratio between productivity and the coefficient of structural independence, giving the improvement of the structure of the industrial system, is ensured with the growth of investment in fixed assets and increase in productivity. The problem of economic and industrial restructuring is a system task of management and focuses at the formation of productive proportions between the system elements (sectors) and their development. The relationships between the system parameters and the identification of factors (causes), providing their change, form the contents of the structural analysis of any economic system. Author's model of the optimal structure of the sector is used with the aim to identify the relationship between the structural coefficient and productivity, which leads to the conclusion about the opportunity of increasing of this indicator, basing on certain structural interrelations.

Keywords: productivity, industry, structural independence, structural changes, structural analysis

SUKHAREV Oleg S., Dr. Sc. (Econ.), professor, leading scientific researcher, Institute of Economics, RAS; e-mail:
STRIGAKOVA Ekaterina N., Cand. Sc. (Econ.), associate professor, Bryansk State Technical University; e-mail:

Vyacheslav LEPESHKIN

«Soft power» of Russian tourism

Recent turbulent geopolitical events raised on a high level the discussion about the search of effective instruments to ensure national interests of our country in a changing world. Here sounds fair criticism, proving that we still haven’t mastered properly the arsenal of tools of so-called «soft power». As a rule, the subject of discussion is the activity of non-profit organizations, attracting foreign investment, the conditions for issuing visas, etc. In this context tourism isn’t mentioned directly, but tourism can and must play a significant role in creating a positive image of Russia. The priority attention to tourist exchanges with countries which are close to us geographically and historically are close to us are designed to preserve and strengthen the cultural, ethnic and linguistic ties with the peoples of these countries and, ultimately, should contribute to the improvement of Russia's image in the West. In the article it is proposed to allocate tourist exchanges with border countries to the priority directions of development of national tourism. For the solution of the critical and complex tasks of quantitative and qualitative development of tourist exchanges with border countries are needed combined efforts of state agencies, professional branch society and tourist public.

Keywords: tourism industry, «soft power», region, tourism, tourist exchanges

LEPESHKIN Vyacheslav A., Cand. Sc. (Econ.), associate professor, professor of the Chair of hospitality and touristic business of the Plekhanov Russian University of Economics; e-mail:



Technological and spatial possibilities of the new industrialization of industrial regions

Contradictory trends of the national economy development characterize as well industrial regions’ development, including “Great Urals”. The latter is composed of regions of the Russian Federation with leading positions in the given macro-region and of regions - «outsiders» according to the growth of industrial production index, financial results, volume of investments in fixed assets, real disposable incomes of population and other indicators. The assessment of the Sverdlovsk region’s economy - the largest industrial region of the country - allows to conclude that the gap in labour productivity in the industry of the region more than three times in comparison with foreign countries’ indicators is one of the most important factors of low competitiveness of separate branches of industry. Overcoming the negative trends in the Sverdlovsk region, as well as in Russia as a whole requires a change in the strategic direction of development, its focusing at the implementation of a new industrialization. In the Middle Urals the necessary human capital, creativity and core competencies are already forming. The applying of them in the utilization of available mineral, scientific, technological, industrial and institutional resources will make it possible to adjust the strategic vector of the regional economy development in accordance with the global trends of technological development. The authors revealed the possibilities of using space for the economic growth as one of the most important resources of new industrialization. The paper contains the results of utilization of the methodological works for the elaboration of «The Program of the modernization and the creation of new jobs in the territory of Sverdlovsk region for the period till 2020».

Keywords: new industrialization, industrial region, spatial factor, resources and mechanisms, trends

TATARKIN Alexander I., Dr. Sc. (Econ.), Professor, Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Director of the Institute of Economics, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Yekaterinburg; e-mail:
ROMANOVA Olga A., Dr. Sc. (Econ.), Professor, Head of the Department of regional industrial police and economic security, Institute of Economics, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Yekaterinburg; e-mail:
AKBERDINA Victoria V., Dr. Sc. (Econ.), Assistant Professor, Head of the Sector of branch markets, Institute of Economics, Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences; Head of the Chair of theory of management and innovations, Urals Federal University, Yekaterinburg; e-mail:


Methodological foundations of the cluster approach

In practice, the cluster concept faces terminology and methodology challenges, due to the decentralized and dynamic nature of clusters as objects. The most of such issues can be resolved if the clusters are considered as self-organizing systems. This approach treats cluster policy as a constructive process, the success of which is directly linked to the evolution component of the clusters, and determines the requirements for the analytic apparatus of cluster approach. Evaluation of the cluster policy effectiveness is built over more fundamental tasks of the identification and analysis of clusters. In order to account the dynamic nature of the clusters, it is expedient to use an evolutionary approach to clusters’ modeling and to the prognosis of their development.

Keywords: cluster policy, clusters, self-organizing systems, evolutionary approach

MARKOV Leonid S., Cand. Sc. (Econ.), Head of sub-department, Institute of Economics and Industrial production organization, Siberian Department of RAS, Novosibirsk; e-mail:


Public-private partnership at the regional level

The active use of the potential opportunities of public-private partnership (PPP) forms one of the major preconditions of the Russian economy and its regional economic systems transfer to the innovative type of development. At the moment, the practice of PPP is regulated only fragmentary with a number of federal laws and other legal acts and the latter constrains institutionalization and effective utilization of PPP mechanisms. Under modern conditions the role of PPP increases in the realization of economically and socially significant projects in the region, such as construction of business-incubators, industrial parks, logistical centers, clusters and other infrastructure objects, including the infrastructure of small and medium-sized business promoting in the region. The formation of legal base of PPP practice, including its regional level, demands prompt adoption of the target federal law and further coordination with it the significant number of acting regional laws on PPP.

Keywords: governmental support of business activity small and medium-sized business, infrastructure of business development, public-private partnership

DMITRIEV Jury A., Dr. Sc. (Econ.), Professor of the chair «Management» of the Vladimir state university after A.G. and N.G. Stoletovs; e-mail:
SHUSTROV Leonid I., Cand. Sc. (Econ.), Senior lecturer of the chair «State and municipal management» of the Vladimir branch of the Russian Academy of national economy and public services by the President of the Russian Federation; e-mail:



Old problems and new approaches to strategic planning in Russia

The article analyzes the history of national strategic planning and its main problems. Russia is a pioneer strategic of planning (GOELRO plan, 1920). However, in the last decades of development management of the country was carried out “in a manual mode” with the forecast horizon of 2-3 years. The weak link was the «blurring» of goal targets, unsystematic nature of plans, their isolation from reality and mutual disagreement. Normative-legal ensuring of strategic planning was fragmented. The recently adopted Federal law «On strategic planning in the Russian Federation» has put the legal basis for the development and implementation of national strategic planning and wider – for the management of the country development.

Keywords: national security, strategic planning, the subject of the Russian Federation, municipalities, Federal target programs

GLIGICH-ZOLOTAREVA Milena V., Cand. Sc. (Law), senior scientific researcher of the Institute of Economics, RAS; e-mail:


Federal state structure as the basic construction of the comparative analysis

Among new directions of federalism related research are comparative studies in the mainstream of “new political economy”. The activation of these studies leads to the appearance of numerous publications, in which not only contradict various author's positions, but also are held professional debates between scientists of different research spheres. The main reason of these disagreements, according to the authors of this article, is the insufficient consideration of the modern federal states’ specifics. The article provides the results of the classification of modern federal states by the following criteria: management, state organization, political regime, which represent the basic structures of a federal state. Comparative studies of modern federations allow to make conclusions about the absence of ideal-typical form of federal state structure and about the need to consider specific forms of government organizations of the federal state in the study of individual subject areas of federalism.

Keywords: federal state, form of the state political system, form of the government organization, form of the governance

PESHINA Evelina V., Dr. Sc. (Ec.), professor, Head of the Chair of State and Municipal Finances; Urals State University of Economics; e-mail:
STREKALOVA Alyona A., Sr. Lecturer of the Chair of State and Municipal Finances; Urals State University of Economics; e-mail:



Problems of local self-government institutionalization in the Russian Federation

Studying world experience shows that the local self-government does not only ensure the democratic basis of the power and government, but also appears to be one of the factors of the national economy transition to the innovative way of development. The illustration is the inclusion of the municipal sector in the law on strategic planning in the Russian Federation. Fastening the local government authority to form long-term priorities of social and economic development, the law enlarges the opportunities of municipalities in conducting independent economic and social policy. At the same time, one significant point, the importance of which is proved by foreign experience, is missing in the given law. This experience shows that the efficiency of the municipal (local) social and economic development programs is mostly occurred due to the involvement of the representatives of business, civil society organizations and population. It seems necessary to ensure alignment of the position of the law, on the one hand, and the existing budget process - on the other one. A lot of has been told about the inter-municipal forms of local self-government. However, today it mostly concerns associative forms of cooperation. A serious factor, restraining potential involvement of this institution, is the fact that in accordance with Russian legislation, inter-municipal associations could not be empowered with local governments’ official powers. This prohibition hinders the effective institutionalization of local self-government.

Keywords: local self-government, municipal governance, municipal units, powers of local self-government bodies, strategic planning

ODINTSOVA Alexandra V., Dr. Sc. (Econ.), leading scientific researcher, Institute of Economics, RAS; e-mail:


Opportunities of investment activity at the municipal level

Innovative nature of modern economic development requires increased investment activities at all levels of territorial administration. However, current investment policy of local self-government bodies usually presents only a declaration of intent of the municipal authorities to be engaged in the investment activity. Today on the agenda there is a problem of ensuring effective participation of municipal authorities in the formation of investment policy, adequate to the needs of local development.
The main problematic point here is the formation within the targets of existing legislation the legal basis for carrying out own investment policy of municipalities; the system of instruments, ensuring the expansion of the municipal investment activity and the growth of its effectiveness; differentiating municipal units according to their investment potential as a basis for the formation of different models of investment management; formation of the single standard of the investment policy of municipalities (in relation to the subjects of the Federation the given standard has been already implemented).

Keywords: agency of investments’ attraction, investment policy, municipality, municipal-private partnership, the subject of investment activity

DOMNINA Irina N., Cand. Sc. (Econ.), associate professor, leading scientific researcher, Centre of federal relations and regional development, Institute of Economics, RAS; e-mail:
MAEVSKAYA Ludmila I., Cand. Sc. (Econ.), associate professor, leading scientific researcher, Centre of federal relations and regional development, Institute of Economics, RAS; e-mail:


Axiology of local self-government in the Russian constitutionalism in the XIX-XX centuries

A significant date is celebrated in 2014 – 150 years ago the local self-governmental system known as zemstvo was introduced in Russia, starting the process of genuine modernization of social life: people received invaluable experience not only to set, but also to solve social problems. In this article, the local government is seen as one of the most important legal values of constitutionalism. Based on the analysis of territorial self-government, established in Russia during the Great Reform of 1864, as well as the works of Russian constitutionalists of late XIX – early XX century, the author shows that the competence of the local government is not limited by the superintendence of local affairs. In fact, its subject is state affairs. The article proves that overcoming the opposition of the local government, on the one hand, and the government, on the other hand, which is typical for authors of Zemstvo reform in 1864, and for the modern Russian legislation, is only possible through the axiological constitutionalism. In this connection, the author defines the local government as a form of decentralization of state power, which contributes to the realization of the right to private and public autonomy of the citizen of a constitutional state, which is both a member of the people, and of certain territorial public community. This approach complies with the principles of the European Charter of Local Self-Government.

Keywords: constitutional state, constitutionalism, decentralization, district council (zemstvo), local government, state administration

KOCHETKOV Vladimir V., Cand. Sc. (Philosophy), Associate professor, Leading scientific researcher; Human rights Institute of the Russian State Social University (Moscow); e-mail:



The opportunities of MIC potential utilization in the development of consumer market in Russia

In recent years the possibility to use scientific, technical, intellectual, and productive potential of military-industrial complex (MIC) for the development of consumer goods and services market has been actively discussed again. This problem, however, is not new. Attempts to solve this problem in the USSR and later on and their results are well known. The specific of current period is that the goal of saturating the consumer market is prevented not only with unprecedented moral and physical obsolescence of the manufacturing industry machinery, but also with such factors, as staff shortage, spatial hyper-concentration of intellectual property subject, and the loss of a significant part of the objects of this property. Thus, today the increase in production volumes of goods and services with a high share of the added even to a smaller degree in comparison with the previous periods can be ensured only on the basis MIC resources. For the solution of this problem it is necessary the reindustrialization of all national economy and first of all of the branches of a manufacturing industry.

Keywords: intellectual property, machine building, military-industrial complexr, reindustrialization, federal district, economy of innovations

VALENTEI Sergey D., Dr. Sc. (Econ.), professor, scientific leader of the Plekhanov Russian University of Economics; e-mail:


Industrial potential of Russia and the degree of its use

The course towards stable socio-economic development of the country and the calls for the modernization of the national economy on the innovative basis to a great extent contradict each other. The success of both strategies seems rather doubtful, taking into consideration the current state of the industrial potential of Russia. Objective analysis leads to the conclusion that the most important socio-economic indicators for the 25 years period still haven’t achieved the level of 1990s. The country, in fact, turned out to be a raw materials’ appendage of the global economy; suffered significant deterioration in the quality of fixed assets, complete degradation of the manufacturing industries and, especially, machine building, determining scientific and technical progress; deterioration of the human potential in all its parameters. The basic cause of the collapse of the industrial potential of the country in general and especially in machine building the author sees in the absence of the national industrial policy and in the dominance of the market liberalism principles. The way out of the stalemate economic situation is possible only on the basis of the formation of the modern all national industrial policy, aimed at the progressive changes in the structure, organization, regulation and technologies of reproduction process. The author proves the necessity of de-privatization of basic branches of economic activity, taking into account the fact that crucial for innovation-oriented development are basic and high-tech types of production, which cannot be restored on the private ownership basis.

Keywords: degradation of fixed assets, the de-privatization, innovative economy, machine building, market liberalism

NESHITOY Anatoliy S., Cand. Sc. (Econ.), leading scientific researcher, Institute of Economics, RAS; e-mail: