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"FEDERALIZM" #2 (74) 2014

SOCIO-ECONOMIC PROBLEMS

Nataliya ZVEREVA

DEMOGRAPHIC POTENTIAL OF THE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE REGIONS OF RUSSIA

Despite of the success in demographic policy of the last years, significant differentiations still remain in the reproduction of population between regions of Russia. These differences influence the provision of the labour market of regions and create demographic burden, which causes the need to increase taxes on the business, the re-orientate budget and private expenditures to social policy instead of the investments in the development of production on the innovative basis. High mortality within working age should encourage enterprises to invest in fixed capital, in new technologies in order to mitigate the losses of human capital. Not all new measures of demographic policy answer the contemporary calls, generated with the reproduction of population. The paper proves the need of improving the organizational structure of the social-demographic policy.

Keywords: reproduction of population, demographic burden, demographic potential of innovative development, migration, fertility, mortality, population aging

ZVEREVA Nataliya V., Dr. Sc. (Econ.), professor, Chair of population, Faculty of Economics, M.V Lomonosov Moscow State University; e-mail: zvereva52@yandex.ru


Irina BUKINA

THE PARADOXES OF FINANCIAL POLICY IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

Fiscal and monetary policy, carried out in the last decade, mostly impedes economic growth rather than promotes it. Despite the persistence of high oil prices in the post-crisis period, federal budget revenues react poorly to the changes in them, being more dependent on the fluctuations of exchange rate and the volume of oil production. Before now funds, accumulated due to oil and gas export revenues, were used only to finance the federal budget deficit and the anti-crisis measures. It seems reasonable that actives of the National Welfare Fund should be used for the benefit of the future generations. At the same time, these resources are spent on infrastructure projects, whose financial plans are not available to the public, so it is impossible to evaluate the effectiveness of any of these projects, or to monitor the use of funds.
Withdrawal of liquidity from the economy is not limited only with the expulsion of oil and gas revenues in sovereign funds. In recent years, the formation of the federal budget deficit has been planned each year and borrowings’ plan also is approved annually. Despite of the fact that the actual deficit appeared to be much smaller than planned or even formed surplus, borrowing plans have been realized almost fully. At the same time, the share of the federal budget expenditures in the areas, which can stimulate intensive economic growth, decreases. Available resources in the country are actively seized via fiscal and monetary instruments and are directed to supporting and strengthening existing deformed socio-economic structure.
The current model of fiscal policy exacerbates the distortions, generated in the production structure and income distribution, and complicates the transition to the model of innovative development.

Keywords: budget, state debt, oil and gas revenues, Reserve Fund, National Welfare Fund, oil price, economic growth

BUKINA Irina S., Cand. Sc. (Econ.), senior researcher, Institute of Economics, RAS; e-mail: bis.email@gmail.ru

QUESTIONS OF LAW

Milena GLIGICH-ZOLOTAREVA

THE UNITED STATES OF UKRAINE

In connection with the events in Ukraine, many politicians and scholars (both in Ukraine and in other countries) expressed the idea of transformation of Ukraine into a federal state. This article is devoted to the analysis of the arguments «for» and «contra» the federation in Ukraine. The paper refutes the following arguments against the federalization of the country: the federalization is impractical, because it would entail separatism and the inevitable disintegration of the country; federalism itself is an inefficient and unstable form of state-territorial structure; federalization is impractical, because it runs counter to European values; federalization is impractical, because it hasn’t historical background; federalization is impractical because it doesn’t account economic and cultural ties between the regions.
On the other hand, real federalism will give Ukraine: overcoming the current crisis of Ukrainian statehood - the most powerful in the country’s recent history; it will increase the level of democracy, which would result in the election of regional governors by the population and in general - more active role of population in forming regional authorities; solving the problem of cultural and linguistic division of the country through improving the mechanism of regional languages. The delegation to the regions of the wide range of powers will largely reduce the level of responsibilities of the center for their socio-economic development; the creation of the upper chamber of the Ukrainian parliament will make Ukrainian parliamentarism more stable and balanced institution.
Regardless of the outcome of the Ukrainian political opposition, the regions of Ukraine in the long term can be united only into the state with a federal allied nature.

Keywords: democracy, the European Union, euroregions, the Crimea, the distribution of powers, regions, the Russian Federation, Ukraine, federalism, the efficiency of federal device

GLIGICH-ZOLOTAREVA Milena V., Cand. Sc. (Law), senior scientific researcher of the Institute of Econom-
ics, RAS; e-mail: milena-gligic@yandex.ru


Ivan LEKSIN

NEW SUBJECTS OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION: PROBLEMS OF THEORY, LEGISLATION AND THE PRACTICE OF ITS REALIZATION

Article is devoted to the actual issues of territorial integrity of the state, territorial entities’ secession and disintegration of the state, the right of nations for self-determination, changing the state status of territorial formations. The paper considers both common international legal and constitutional legal context and as well specific practical situations. Particular attention is paid to the output of Crimea from Ukraine, to the procedural issues of its joining the Russian Federation and legal and technical complexities, following this process. Author also puts the question of the limited effectiveness of legal remedies’ protection against separatism.

Keywords: international law, right for self-determination, secession, status, subject of the Russian Federation, territorial integrity, federal device

LEKSIN Ivan V., Ph. D. (Law), Ph.D. (Econ.), associate professor, Chair of the legal grounds of government, Faculty of Public Administration, The Lomonosov Moscow State University; e-mail: leksin@spa.msu.ru

LOCAL AUTONOMY

Eugeny BUKHVALD

REFORM OF THE REFORM OR TRISHKIN CAFTAN?

In the article the author considers the first – after the period of active discussions –
large scale changes to the federal law on the local self-government, which indicate the beginning of a qualitatively new stage of the municipal reform in the Russian Federation. In article shows that a lot of the issues, proposed nowadays as new important directions of the municipal reform development, as a matter of fact, was already offered at the stage of elaborating and discussing of the acting variant of the reform.The special attention in the paper is addressed to the fact that alongside with a set of the positive aspects, new legislative settings comprise some very disputable moments. First of all, as indicated in the article, it concerns insufficient attention to the direct forms of democracy and the participation of population in choosing both concrete institutions of local self-government and their directing bodies. The author expresses the opinion about the necessity to support in the shortest time institutional innovations in the municipal reform with strengthening of economic basis of local self-government in Russia.

Keywords: local self-government, municipal reform, powers of local significance, local budgets, direct forms of democracy

BUKHVALD Eugeny M., Dr. Sc. (Econ.), Professor, Head of the Centre of federal relations and regional development; Institute of Economics, RAS; e-mail: buchvald@mail.ru


Sergey BAZHENOV

CLUSTERS IN THE HOUSING AND COMMUNAL SERVICES’ SPHERE OF THE REGION

Housing and communal services’ sector is one of the indicators of the state of the regional economy and of the welfare of citizens. Continuing economic degradation of this branch of the economy encourages to seek perspective management technologies, the implementation of which will ensure the creation of conditions for accelerating institutional reforms in it. The paper presents the analysis of the housing and communal services’ sphere reforming. The author reveals the problems and the reasons of the current situation in this sector of the economy. The paper presents a new model of development management for housing and communal services, based on the principles of clustering with the participation of consumer of housing and communal services.

Keywords: integration, cluster, cluster principles, housing and communal services, development, regulation, reform, strategy

BAZHENOV Sergey I., Dr. Sc. (Econ.), Deputy director, Institute of Economics, Urals Branch of RAS; e-mail: naukaservis@rambler.ru

ECONOMIC-GEOGRAPHICAL PROBLEMS

Irina ZELENEVA

PROBLEMS OF THE FAR EAST IN THE XXI CENTURY

The paper proposes a new geo-strategic approach to the development of the Far East. The geopolitical position of the Far East, its proximity to the dynamically developing countries of the region is not a sufficient precondition for the development of active economic and political relations with the countries of Asia Pacific. Adverse factors, affecting the socio-economic indicators of the region’ socio-economic development, are narrow specialization and resources’ oriented economy of the region, depopulation, lack of a modern business environment. For the full-scale implementation of its economic, geopolitical interests, Russia should convert Far East into a region of viable economic activity, pursuit of a balanced investment policy with Asian partners: Japan, South Korea, and especially China. Important areas of cooperation between Russia and China are the development of transport infrastructure, energy cooperation. Since between Russia and China is not only a common interest for cooperation, but also a conflict, the most favourable scenario foe the development of Russian-Chinese relations is the implementation of geo-strategic approach, based on an integrated perception of «national interests». The main benefits, which Russia can obtain from such a format of the relations, - economic growth of the Far East, and as a result, Russia’s integration in Northeast Asia and the Asia-Pacific region and the status of the country - stability guarantor of the international economic system.

Keywords: geopolitical advantages of the Far East, geo-strategic approach to Russia’s economic development, modernization of the Far East, cooperation between Russian Federation and China

ZELENEVA Irina V., Dr. Sc. (Hist.), Cand. Sc. (Polit.), associate professor, professor of the Faculty of International Relations; St. Petersburg State University; e-mail: irina_zeleneva@mail.ru


Tat’yana SKUFINA

DEVELOPMENT OF THE RUSSIAN ARCTIC IN THE CONDITIONS OF STRENGTHENING FOR HOLDING THE RAW MATERIALS’ RESOURCES

This article is devoted to the fundamental problem, associated with the contradictions between strengthening geopolitical and economic importance of the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation and the simultaneous growth of socio-economic losses of these territories, strengthening the structural disproportions of the economy, the depletion of the searchable reserve of the raw materials’ sector. The paper states that in the conditions, when raw materials’ complex still defines the competitive positions of the Russian Federation and serves as the donor of the budget, as the basis for modernization and as the consumer of high technologies, declared orientation to the dominating development of the innovative sector of the national economy do not match the reality.
The author reviews normative statements of the international organizations and the specificity of the Russian understanding of the problems, stated by these organizations. The paper contains positive scientific researches of the problems of social and economic development of Arctic regions and also summarizes the views in the sphere of economy of natural resources’ utilization, including natural sciences’ aspects. Despite of rather stable operating of the mineral-raw complex of the North-Arctic zone of the Russian Federation, the exhaustion of the search reserve of the USSR period still remains one of the basic problems. The paper provides references to new natural sciences’ concepts of the Russian researchers, indicating perspectives of early stages geological works in the Arctic zone of Russia. The author comes to the conclusion about the necessity of the inter-branch approach to researching development problems, focused at the Russian Arctic zone.

Keywords: Arctic, reproduction, mineral raw recourses, searchable natural resources’ reserve, natural resources’ utilization, socio-economic development, governance

SKUFINA Tat’yana P., Dr. Sc. (Econ.), professor, Head of the Department of Regional and the municipal government in the North of the Russian Federation, Institute for economic problems, Kola Scientific Centre, RAS; e-mail: skufina@iep.kolasc.net.ru

PAST. PRESENT. FUTURE

Stalina BELOZEROVA

GOVERNMENT MANAGEMENT MEASURES IN THE INDUSTRY DURING THE WAR YEARS AND UNDER THE CONDITIONS OF THE REFORM

The article considers the state measures, aimed to restructuring the country’s economy in the conditions of the war and in the reforms’ period of the 1990s. The author investigates the practice of the organizing work to ensure relocation of enterprises and personnel provision during the first months of the war. The paper provides the analysis of experience of mobilization work with the aim to restore evacuated enterprises in the difficult economic conditions. In the situation of increasing shortage of personnel, during war period working overtime was widely used and the latter resulted in increased morbidity. However, this situation increases the motivation of labour. Several processes appeared to be opposite in the conditions of reform. Measures, adopted by the Government for the restructuring of the economy with the transfer of enterprises to market basis, complicated the output process and led not only to decline in production, but also to the loss of personnel. The above mentioned resulted as well in the loss of prestige of industrial labour in and in reduced employee’s motivation. The recovering of the industry on a new technology basis requires government measures, stimulating economic activity and the formation of a new personnel training system.

Keywords: recovery, personnel, mobilization, new technologies, industry, reform, modernization, machine building, evacuation

BELOZEROVA Stalina M., Dr. Sc. (Econ.), leading scientific researcher, Laboratory of social and labour relations, Institute of Economics, RAS; e-mail: stalina@smtp.ru


Vladimir KOCHETKOV

CONSERVATISM AND CONSTITUTIONALISM IN THE CONCEPT OF I.A. ILINA

In today’s domestic political and legal discourse the participants increasingly talk about the priority of conservatism, involving basing state governing over some traditional values. The legacy I.A. Ilyin has become the symbol of the so-called «enlightened conservatism» for the Russian ruling elite. This work is devoted to the analysis of the Draft Basic Law of the Russian Empire, prepared by Ilyin in 1938 in connection with his theory of state and law. Ilyin believed that the ideal state as a constitutional democracy institutionalized under the division of powers and the priority of human rights and freedoms is not suitable for Russia. The latter proves with the evolution of democracy into the dictatorship from February to October 1917. That is why he rejects the principle of popular sovereignty, replacing it with the omnipotence of the head of state. Ilyin also denies the importance of democracy as a way to limit the power of elites, without offering any legal mechanisms to protect the dignity of the individual, his rights and freedoms. This lawyer thought that it’s necessary to return to the autocratic forms of state governing, based on Christian values and the axioms of Russian justice. The author shows that the principles of state-building, proposed by Ilyin, are internally contradictory and do not consistent with the values of constitutionalism. Thus, to the opinion of the author, is seen the explanation of the phenomenon of Ilyin’s ideas popularity within modern Russian ruling elite: through them it’s easy to justify their inability or unwillingness to implement the principles, enshrined in the Constitution of the Russian Federation of 1993.

Keywords: constitutionalism, conservatism, I.A. Ilyin, freedom, human rights, sovereignty, elite

KOCHETKOV Vladimir V., Cand. Sc. (Philosophy), Associate professor, Leading scientific researcher; Human rights Institute of the Russian State Social University (Moscow); e-mail: vovov69@mail.ru

ANALITICAL NOTES

Larisa CHUVAKHINA

POLICY OF THE USA FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM AS A FACTOR OF GLOBAL INSTABILITY

The article considers the problems of the modern financial policy of the USA. The author examines the strategy of the USA Federal Reserve System (FRS) in the situation of new global challenges. The paper stresses the importance of fiscal and debt policy in FRS goals. The author shows the role of FRS in maintaining of the USA dollar position as global currency. The paper reviews the demand for USA Dollar in international settlements, state reserves as well as the degree of dollarization of the world economy. Particular attention is paid to the policy of FRS, aimed at preserving geopolitical prestige of the first world economy, without taking into account the interests of other countries. The author identifies the possible consequences of folding FRS quantitative easing program (Q3) for emerging markets. The author comes to the conclusion that the necessity to ensure macroeconomic stability for the countries with emerging markets requires consideration of the specific nature of the financial policy of the USA, deep analysis of the state of national financial systems, identifying the main risks and possible consequences.

Keywords: budget deficit, public debt, USA dollar, the program of quantitative easing, Federal Reserve System, financial policy

CHUVAKHINA Larisa G., Cand. Sc. (Econ.), Associate Professor, Department of World economy and international financial relations, Finance University under the
Government of the Russian Federation; e-mail: l-econom@mail.ru


Svetlana ZOLOTOVA, Svetlana NIKOLICHEVA

THE RUSSIAN JEWELLERY MARKET AFTER ACCESSION TO THE WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION

Russia’s accession to the customs’ union (with Kazakhstan and Belorussia) and to the World Trade Organization (WTO) is aimed to strengthen international economic relations and intensify the integration of Russia into the world’s economic system. Until now Russian jewellery market has kept high level of its autonomy and individuality. In this connection it seems actually to analyze the impact of globalization processes over Russian jewellery market development and to reveal the risks, related to these processes.
The following article presents specific characteristics of the Russian jewellery market and discusses some problems, which demand attention and analysis. The paper considers the system of state regulation of the market of precious metals and precious stones and provides its comparison with such one in other countries of the world. The paper shows that despite rich sources of raw materials, Russia still is one of the biggest importers in this branch of the economy. Jewellery goods, produced in Russia, cannot compete with the prices of imported goods in the segment of «mass market», which constitutes the biggest part of jewellery sales in Russia. The imperfection of the Russian tax and custom regulation contributes to this increase of imports. Thus, taxes and fees automatically increase the value of goods of Russian production by 38%. Competition on the inner-country market has led to a decrease of prices, which disturbs the customer to consider other criteria when choosing products and deprives the Russian jewellery market of its image as «luxury».
However, due to the rich sources of raw materials and the unique tradition of the jewellery production, well-known and valued all over the world, Russian jewellery market has very wide possibilities of development and already today is characterized with stable growth.

Keywords: state regulation, foreign and inner-country competition, risks of the jewellery market, falsification of jewellery goods, jewellery market

ZOLOTOVA Svetlana V., Cand. Sc. (Technical sciences), associate professor of the Plekhanov Russian University of Economics; e-mail: goldoni@yandex.ru
NIKOLICHEVA Svetlana A., Assistant to the Vice-rector for Science of the Plekhanov Russian University of Economics; e-mail: pro-nir@yandex.ru


Aleksey BUSHUEV

NEGOTIATING HISTORY OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND THE REPUBLIC OF TATARSTAN IN 1991-1994

The article, basing on the unpublished archive materials, stored in the State Archive of the Russian Federation, illustrates the process of the negotiations within the period 1990–1994 between the Russian Federation and the Republic of Tatarstan on the issue of signing a bilateral treaty on the differentiation of governing powers. The author describes the main stages of the negotiations’ process under the complicated ethno-political situation of the 1990s, identifies the position of the main participants of the negotiations and the role of the Russian top politicians (B.N. Yeltsin, M.Sh. Shaimiev, G.E. Burbulis, S.M. Shakhrai, V.N. Likhachev, etc.) in solving complex problems during negotiations. The paper shows objective and subjective difficulties of the negotiations’ process and its main results.

Keywords: «Tatarstan model», negotiations, Republic of Tatarstan, Russian Federation, federal relations, Federation

BUSHUEV Aleksey S., Cand. Sc. (Hist.), Head of the Modern and Contemporary History Department, Sh. Marjani Institute of History; Tatarstan Republic Academy of Sciences; e-mail: a_bushujev@mail.ru

YOUNG SCIENTISTS

Victoria GOROKHOVA

DYNAMICS OF LEGAL GROUNDS PRESERVATION OF CULTURAL HERITAGE IN THE MODERN ERA OF SOCIAL TRANSFORMATIONS

The article provides the analysis of the development of the terms «culture» and «cultural heritage» in foreign and domestic science, as well as in legal acts of international and regional significance.
Cultural heritage is an integral part of a multifaceted dynamically changing metasystem of life activity, obeying the laws of synergy. The presence of cultural heritage in all spheres of life activity (economics, psychology, philosophy, education, etc.) requires serious investigation and leads to the appearance of new related scientific disciplines, such as cross-cultural psychology, culture industry, organizational culture, etc.
This article considers the phenomenon of the world’s cultural diversity, widespread and affordable interpenetration and intermingling of cultural heritage of different epochs and peoples. Successful and complete communication and interaction with other cultures needs «intercultural competence», which includes a set of socio-cultural, linguistic and communication skills.
The author comes to the conclusion about the evolution of the content and the form of cultural heritage and increasing its role in the modern world, which is characterized by differently directed processes of globalization.

Keywords: culture, cultural diversity, cultural heritage, cultural capital, intercultural communication, UNESCO

GOROKHOVA Victoria V., Postgraduate student, UNESCO Chair, The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration; e-mail: V.gorokhova@list.ru


Mikhail MASKATULIN

CONSTITUTIONAL AND LEGAL PROBLEMS OF THE UNIFICATION OF THE CITY OF ST. PETERSBURG AND LENINGRAD REGION

The article investigates the preconditions for the unification of the two neighboring regions, which have gravitated historically, economically and in infrastructure to each other, as well as the procedure and the mechanism of creation a new region with new constitutional-legal status on the example of the federal city of St. Petersburg and Leningrad region. The papers reviews the specific of the referendum procedures on the issues of unification of the two subjects into one in case of unequal number of voters, living in these regions. The article notes the experience of unification of the two regions into one region on the example of the Perm region and Komi-Permyak autonomous district, which have formed later Perm region (kray).

Keywords: elections, constitutional and legal status, the Constitution of the Russian Federation, unification, region, referendum

MASKATULIN Mikhail M., graduate student, lecturer, Saint-Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation; e-mail: Mikle1309@yandex.ru


Irina SARKISIAN

SOVIET MODEL OF TOTALITARIAN MODERNIZATION

Social transformations of the end of XXth century, political collapse of the soviet state, turning of the country into a raw materials-producing appendage of the industrially developed countries have become a basis for Russians’ nostalgia for the «totalitarian» USSR. The success of «totalitarian» reforms of the 1930-s ensured not only high rates of industrial production growth but also a redistribution system within which financial, labour and other resources, necessary for the development of military industry, actually were taken away from the society. There is a paradox that the totalitarian model of state development, historically embodied by Peter’s and Stalin’s reforms, aiming military strengthening of the country, in a short period of time later provoked a shortage of elementary political and economical freedoms that became the reason for of the collapse of the Russian Empire and Soviet Union, being in the zenith of their military power.

Keywords: modernization, modernization in USSR, «totalitarian» modernization

SARKISIAN Irina I., Postgraduate student, faculty of sociology, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University; e-mail: 7533434@gmail.com


Sergey YUN

FOREST INDUSTRY OF THE KHABAROVSKY KRAY

In the article, basing on the experience of twenty years functioning period of forest-industrial complex (FIC) of Khabarovsky Kray, the author undertakes testing of the Rybchynskiy theorem. According to this theorem, the development of raw materials export results in weakening of the processed goods export. The author defines three periods of the regional FIC development, which can be distinguished via quantitative indicators of the complex development, but, nevertheless, they have a general trend – transfer from deep wood processing to production of raw materials. The article shows that the model of regional FIC development by suppressing the export of raw materials appeared to be ineffective both for the conditions of the Khabarovsky Kray and for other Russian Federation border areas.

Keywords: forest processing industry, forest export, forest-industrial complex, Rybchynskiy theorem, Khabarovsky Kray

YUN Sergey E., Assistant-Researcher, Economic Research Institute of the Far Eastern Branch of RAS; e-mail: yunsergey@gmail.com